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3 Janelia Publications

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    10/11/19 | The organization of the second optic chiasm of the optic lobe.
    Shinomiya K, Horne JA, McLin S, Wiederman M, Nern A, Plaza SM, Meinertzhagen IA
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2019 Oct 11;13:65. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2019.00065

    Visual pathways from the compound eye of an insect relay to four neuropils, successively the lamina, medulla, lobula, and lobula plate in the underlying optic lobe. Among these neuropils, the medulla, lobula, and lobula plate are interconnected by the complex second optic chiasm, through which the anteroposterior axis undergoes an inversion between the medulla and lobula. Given their complex structure, the projection patterns through the second optic chiasm have so far lacked critical analysis. By densely reconstructing axon trajectories using a volumetric scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique, we reveal the three-dimensional structure of the second optic chiasm of , which comprises interleaving bundles and sheets of axons insulated from each other by glial sheaths. These axon bundles invert their horizontal sequence in passing between the medulla and lobula. Axons connecting the medulla and lobula plate are also bundled together with them but do not decussate the sequence of their horizontal positions. They interleave with sheets of projection neuron axons between the lobula and lobula plate, which also lack decussations. We estimate that approximately 19,500 cells per hemisphere, about two thirds of the optic lobe neurons, contribute to the second chiasm, most being Tm cells, with an estimated additional 2,780 T4 and T5 cells each. The chiasm mostly comprises axons and cell body fibers, but also a few synaptic elements. Based on our anatomical findings, we propose that a chiasmal structure between the neuropils is potentially advantageous for processing complex visual information in parallel. The EM reconstruction shows not only the structure of the chiasm in the adult brain, the previously unreported main topic of our study, but also suggest that the projection patterns of the neurons comprising the chiasm may be determined by the proliferation centers from which the neurons develop. Such a complex wiring pattern could, we suggest, only have arisen in several evolutionary steps.

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    02/05/19 | DVID: Distributed versioned image-oriented dataservice.
    Katz WT, Plaza SM
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2019 Feb 05;13(5):. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2019.00005

    Open-source software development has skyrocketed in part due to community tools like github.com, which allows publication of code as well as the ability to create branches and push accepted modifications back to the original repository. As the number and size of EM-based datasets increases, the connectomics community faces similar issues when we publish snapshot data corresponding to a publication. Ideally, there would be a mechanism where remote collaborators could modify branches of the data and then flexibly reintegrate results via moderated acceptance of changes. The DVID system provides a web-based connectomics API and the first steps toward such a distributed versioning approach to EM-based connectomics datasets. Through its use as the central data resource for Janelia's FlyEM team, we have integrated the concepts of distributed versioning into reconstruction workflows, allowing support for proofreader training and segmentation experiments through branched, versioned data. DVID also supports persistence to a variety of storage systems from high-speed local SSDs to cloud-based object stores, which allows its deployment on laptops as well as large servers. The tailoring of the backend storage to each type of connectomics data leads to efficient storage and fast queries. DVID is freely available as open-source software with an increasing number of supported storage options.

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    01/09/19 | Comparisons between the ON- and OFF-edge motion pathways in the brain.
    Shinomiya K, Huang G, Lu Z, Parag T, Xu CS, Aniceto R, Ansari N, Cheatham N, Lauchie S, Neace E, Ogundeyi O, Ordish C, Peel D, Shinomiya A, Smith C, Takemura S, Talebi I, Rivlin PK, Nern A, Scheffer LK, Plaza SM, Meinertzhagen IA
    eLife. 2019 Jan 09;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.40025

    Understanding the circuit mechanisms behind motion detection is a long-standing question in visual neuroscience. In , recent synapse-level connectomes in the optic lobe, particularly in ON-pathway (T4) receptive-field circuits, in concert with physiological studies, suggest an increasingly intricate motion model compared with the ubiquitous Hassenstein-Reichardt model, while our knowledge of OFF-pathway (T5) has been incomplete. Here we present a conclusive and comprehensive connectome that for the first time integrates detailed connectivity information for inputs to both T4 and T5 pathways in a single EM dataset covering the entire optic lobe. With novel reconstruction methods using automated synapse prediction suited to such a large connectome, we successfully corroborate previous findings in the T4 pathway and comprehensively identify inputs and receptive fields for T5. While the two pathways are likely evolutionarily linked and indeed exhibit many similarities, we uncover interesting differences and interactions that may underlie their distinct functional properties.

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