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4 Janelia Publications

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    11/27/19 | Cryo-EM structure of the human FLCN-FNIP2-Rag-Ragulator complex.
    Shen K, Rogala KB, Chou H, Huang RK, Yu Z, Sabatini DM
    Cell. 2019 Nov 27;179(6):1319-29. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.10.036
    08/01/19 | T3S injectisome needle complex structures in four distinct states reveal the basis of membrane coupling and assembly.
    Hu J, Worrall LJ, Vuckovic M, Hong C, Deng W, Atkinson CE, Brett Finlay B, Yu Z, Strynadka NC
    Nature Microbiology. 2019 Aug;4(11):2010-19. doi: 10.1038/s41564-019-0545-z

    The bacterial injectisome is a syringe-shaped macromolecular nanomachine utilized by many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, including the causative agents of plague, typhoid fever, whooping cough, sexually transmitted infections and major nosocomial infections. Bacterial proteins destined for self-assembly and host-cell targeting are translocated by the injectisome in a process known as type III secretion (T3S). The core structure is the ~4 MDa needle complex (NC), built on a foundation of three highly oligomerized ring-forming proteins that create a hollow scaffold spanning the bacterial inner membrane (IM) (24-mer ring-forming proteins PrgH and PrgK in the Salmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) type III secretion system (T3SS)) and outer membrane (OM) (15-mer InvG, a member of the broadly conserved secretin pore family). An internalized helical needle projects from the NC and bacterium, ultimately forming a continuous passage to the host, for delivery of virulence effectors. Here, we have captured snapshots of the entire prototypical SPI-1 NC in four distinct needle assembly states, including near-atomic resolution, and local reconstructions in the absence and presence of the needle. These structures reveal the precise localization and molecular interactions of the internalized SpaPQR ‘export apparatus’ complex, which is intimately encapsulated and stabilized within the IM rings in the manner of a nanodisc, and to which the PrgJ rod directly binds and functions as an initiator and anchor of needle polymerization. We also describe the molecular details of the extensive and continuous coupling interface between the OM secretin and IM rings, which is remarkably facilitated by a localized 16-mer stoichiometry in the periplasmic-most coupling domain of the otherwise 15-mer InvG oligomer.

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    02/07/19 | Cryo-EM structure of the homohexameric T3SS ATPase-central stalk complex reveals rotary ATPase-like asymmetry.
    Majewski DD, Worrall LJ, Hong C, Atkinson CE, Vuckovic M, Watanabe N, Yu Z, Strynadka NC
    Nature Communications. 2019 Feb 07;10(1):626. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-08477-7

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, including causative agents of dysentery, plague, and typhoid fever, rely on a type III secretion system - a multi-membrane spanning syringe-like apparatus - for their pathogenicity. The cytosolic ATPase complex of this injectisome is proposed to play an important role in energizing secretion events and substrate recognition. We present the 3.3 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli ATPase EscN in complex with its central stalk EscO. The structure shows an asymmetric pore with different functional states captured in its six catalytic sites, details directly supporting a rotary catalytic mechanism analogous to that of the heterohexameric F/V-ATPases despite its homohexameric nature. Situated at the C-terminal opening of the EscN pore is one molecule of EscO, with primary interaction mediated through an electrostatic interface. The EscN-EscO structure provides significant atomic insights into how the ATPase contributes to type III secretion, including torque generation and binding of chaperone/substrate complexes.

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    01/10/19 | Cryo-EM of retinoschisin branched networks suggests an intercellular adhesive scaffold in the retina.
    Heymann JB, Vijayasarathy C, Huang RK, Dearborn AD, Sieving PA, Steven AC
    The Journal of Cell Biology. 2019 Jan 10;218(3):1027-38. doi: 10.1083/jcb.201806148

    Mutations in the retinal protein retinoschisin (RS1) cause progressive loss of vision in young males, a form of macular degeneration called X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). We previously solved the structure of RS1, a 16-mer composed of paired back-to-back octameric rings. Here, we show by cryo-electron microscopy that RS1 16-mers can assemble into extensive branched networks. We classified the different configurations, finding four types of interaction between the RS1 molecules. The predominant configuration is a linear strand with a wavy appearance. Three less frequent types constitute the branch points of the network. In all cases, the "spikes" around the periphery of the double rings are involved in these interactions. In the linear strand, a loop (usually referred to as spike 1) occurs on both sides of the interface between neighboring molecules. Mutations in this loop suppress secretion, indicating the possibility of intracellular higher-order assembly. These observations suggest that branched networks of RS1 may play a stabilizing role in maintaining the integrity of the retina.

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