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94 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 94 results
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    09/20/22 | A proliferative to invasive switch is mediated by srGAP1 downregulation through the activation of TGF-β2 signaling.
    Mondal C, Gacha-Garay MJ, Larkin KA, Adikes RC, Di Martino JS, Chien C, Fraser M, Eni-Aganga I, Agullo-Pascual E, Cialowicz K, Ozbek U, Naba A, Gaitas A, Fu T, Upadhyayula S, Betzig E, Matus DQ, Martin BL, Bravo-Cordero JJ
    Cell Reports. 2022 Sep 20;40(12):111358. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111358

    Many breast cancer (BC) patients suffer from complications of metastatic disease. To form metastases, cancer cells must become migratory and coordinate both invasive and proliferative programs at distant organs. Here, we identify srGAP1 as a regulator of a proliferative-to-invasive switch in BC cells. High-resolution light-sheet microscopy demonstrates that BC cells can form actin-rich protrusions during extravasation. srGAP1 cells display a motile and invasive phenotype that facilitates their extravasation from blood vessels, as shown in zebrafish and mouse models, while attenuating tumor growth. Interestingly, a population of srGAP1 cells remain as solitary disseminated tumor cells in the lungs of mice bearing BC tumors. Overall, srGAP1 cells have increased Smad2 activation and TGF-β2 secretion, resulting in increased invasion and p27 levels to sustain quiescence. These findings identify srGAP1 as a mediator of a proliferative to invasive phenotypic switch in BC cells in vivo through a TGF-β2-mediated signaling axis.

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    09/15/22 | Superresolution microscopy reveals actomyosin dynamics in medioapical arrays.
    Moore RP, Fogerson SM, Tulu US, Yu JW, Cox AH, Sican MA, Li D, Legant WR, Weigel AV, Crawford JM, Betzig E, Kiehart DP
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2022 Sep 15;33(11):ar94. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E21-11-0537

    Arrays of actin filaments (F-actin) near the apical surface of epithelial cells (medioapical arrays) contribute to apical constriction and morphogenesis throughout phylogeny. Here, superresolution approaches (grazing incidence structured illumination, GI-SIM, and lattice light sheet, LLSM) microscopy resolve individual, fluorescently labeled F-actin and bipolar myosin filaments that drive amnioserosa cell shape changes during dorsal closure in . In expanded cells, F-actin and myosin form loose, apically domed meshworks at the plasma membrane. The arrays condense as cells contract, drawing the domes into the plane of the junctional belts. As condensation continues, individual filaments are no longer uniformly apparent. As cells expand, arrays of actomyosin are again resolved-some F-actin turnover likely occurs, but a large fraction of existing filaments rearrange. In morphologically isotropic cells, actin filaments are randomly oriented and during contraction are drawn together but remain essentially randomly oriented. In anisotropic cells, largely parallel actin filaments are drawn closer to one another. Our images offer unparalleled resolution of F-actin in embryonic tissue, show that medioapical arrays are tightly apposed to the plasma membrane and are continuous with meshworks of lamellar F-actin. Medioapical arrays thereby constitute modified cell cortex. In concert with other tagged array components, superresolution imaging of live specimens will offer new understanding of cortical architecture and function.

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    07/30/22 | Characterization, Comparison, and Optimization of Lattice Light Sheets
    Gaoxiang Liu , Xiongtao Ruan , Daniel E. Milkie , Frederik Görlitz , Matthew Mueller , Wilmene Hercule , Alison Kililea , Eric Betzig , Srigokul Upadhyayula
    bioRxiv. 2022 Jul 30:. doi: 10.1101/2022.07.30.502108

    Lattice light sheet microscopy excels at the non-invasive imaging of three-dimensional (3D) dynamic processes at high spatiotemporal resolution within cells and developing embryos. Recently, several papers have called into question the performance of lattice light sheets relative to the Gaussian sheets most common in light sheet microscopy. Here we undertake a comprehensive theoretical and experimental analysis of various forms of light sheet microscopy which both demonstrates and explains why lattice light sheets provide significant improvements in resolution and photobleaching reduction. The analysis provides a procedure to select the correct light sheet for a desired experiment and specifies the processing that maximizes the use of all fluorescence generated within the light sheet excitation envelope for optimal resolution while minimizing image artifacts and photodamage. Development of a new type of “harmonic balanced” lattice light sheet is shown to improve performance at all spatial frequencies within its 3D resolution limits and maintains this performance over lengthened propagation distances allowing for expanded fields of view.

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    05/11/22 | Super-resolution microscopy reveals actomyosin dynamics in medioapical arrays.
    Moore RP, Fogerson SM, Tulu US, Yu JW, Cox AH, Sican MA, Li D, Legant WR, Weigel AV, Crawford JM, Betzig E, Kiehart DP
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2022 May 11:mbcE21110537. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E21-11-0537

    Arrays of actin filaments (F-actin) near the apical surface of epithelial cells (medioapical arrays) contribute to apical constriction and morphogenesis throughout phylogeny. Here, super-resolution approaches (grazing incidence structured illumination, GI-SIM and lattice light sheet, LLSM) microscopy resolve individual, fluorescently labeled F-actin and bipolar myosin filaments that drive amnioserosa cell shape changes during dorsal closure in . In expanded cells, F-actin and myosin form loose, apically domed meshworks at the plasma membrane. The arrays condense as cells contract, drawing the domes into the plane of the junctional belts. As condensation continues, individual filaments are no longer uniformly apparent. As cells expand, arrays of actomyosin are again resolved - some F-actin turnover likely occurs, but a large fraction of existing filaments rearrange. In morphologically isotropic cells, actin filaments are randomly oriented and during contraction, are drawn together but remain essentially randomly oriented. In anisotropic cells, largely parallel actin filaments are drawn closer to one another. Our images offer unparalleled resolution of F-actin in embryonic tissue show that medioapical arrays are tightly apposed to the plasma membrane, are continuous with meshworks of lamellar F-actin and thereby constitute modified cell cortex. In concert with other tagged array components, super-resolution imaging of live specimens will offer new understanding of cortical architecture and function. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text].

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    11/22/21 | De novo endocytic clathrin coats develop curvature at early stages of their formation.
    Willy NM, Ferguson JP, Akatay A, Huber S, Djakbarova U, Silahli S, Cakez C, Hasan F, Chang HC, Travesset A, Li S, Zandi R, Li D, Betzig E, Cocucci E, Kural C
    Development Cell. 2021 Nov 22;56(22):3146-3159.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2021.10.019

    Sculpting a flat patch of membrane into an endocytic vesicle requires curvature generation on the cell surface, which is the primary function of the endocytosis machinery. Using super-resolved live cell fluorescence imaging, we demonstrate that curvature generation by individual clathrin-coated pits can be detected in real time within cultured cells and tissues of developing organisms. Our analyses demonstrate that the footprint of clathrin coats increases monotonically during the formation of pits at different levels of plasma membrane tension. These findings are only compatible with models that predict curvature generation at the early stages of endocytic clathrin pit formation. We also found that CALM adaptors associated with clathrin plaques form clusters, whereas AP2 distribution is more homogenous. Considering the curvature sensing and driving roles of CALM, we propose that CALM clusters may increase the strain on clathrin lattices locally, eventually giving rise to rupture and subsequent pit completion at the edges of plaques.

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    09/30/21 | Cellular bases of olfactory circuit assembly revealed by systematic time-lapse imaging.
    Li T, Fu T, Wong KK, Li H, Xie Q, Luginbuhl DJ, Wagner MJ, Betzig E, Luo L
    Cell. 2021 Sep 30;184(20):5107. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.08.030

    Neural circuit assembly features simultaneous targeting of numerous neuronal processes from constituent neuron types, yet the dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we use the Drosophila olfactory circuit to investigate dynamic cellular processes by which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) target axons precisely to specific glomeruli in the ipsi- and contralateral antennal lobes. Time-lapse imaging of individual axons from 30 ORN types revealed a rich diversity in extension speed, innervation timing, and ipsilateral branch locations and identified that ipsilateral targeting occurs via stabilization of transient interstitial branches. Fast imaging using adaptive optics-corrected lattice light-sheet microscopy showed that upon approaching target, many ORN types exhibiting "exploring branches" consisted of parallel microtubule-based terminal branches emanating from an F-actin-rich hub. Antennal nerve ablations uncovered essential roles for bilateral axons in contralateral target selection and for ORN axons to facilitate dendritic refinement of postsynaptic partner neurons. Altogether, these observations provide cellular bases for wiring specificity establishment.

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    04/01/20 | 3D ATAC-PALM: super-resolution imaging of the accessible genome.
    Xie L, Dong P, Chen X, Hsieh TS, Banala S, De Marzio M, English BP, Qi Y, Jung SK, Kieffer-Kwon K, Legant WR, Hansen AS, Schulmann A, Casellas R, Zhang B, Betzig E, Lavis LD, Chang HY, Tjian R, Liu Z
    Nature Methods. 2020 Apr 01;17(4):430-6. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-0775-2

    To image the accessible genome at nanometer scale in situ, we developed three-dimensional assay for transposase-accessible chromatin-photoactivated localization microscopy (3D ATAC-PALM) that integrates an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with visualization, PALM super-resolution imaging and lattice light-sheet microscopy. Multiplexed with oligopaint DNA–fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), RNA–FISH and protein fluorescence, 3D ATAC-PALM connected microscopy and genomic data, revealing spatially segregated accessible chromatin domains (ACDs) that enclose active chromatin and transcribed genes. Using these methods to analyze genetically perturbed cells, we demonstrated that genome architectural protein CTCF prevents excessive clustering of accessible chromatin and decompacts ACDs. These results highlight 3D ATAC-PALM as a useful tool to probe the structure and organizing mechanism of the genome.

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    01/01/20 | Aurora B functions at the apical surface after specialized cytokinesis during morphogenesis in C. elegans.
    Bai X, Melesse M, Sorensen Turpin CG, Sloan D, Chen C, Wang W, Lee P, Simmons JR, Nebenfuehr B, Mitchell D, Klebanow LR, Mattson N, Betzig E, Chen B, Cheerambathur D, Bembenek JN
    Development. 2020 Jan;147(1):1-16. doi: 10.1242/dev.181099

    While cytokinesis has been intensely studied, the way it is executed during development is not well understood, despite a long-standing appreciation that various aspects of cytokinesis vary across cell and tissue types. To address this, we investigated cytokinesis during the invariant embryonic divisions and found several reproducibly altered parameters at different stages. During early divisions, furrow ingression asymmetry and midbody inheritance is consistent, suggesting specific regulation of these events. During morphogenesis, we found several unexpected alterations to cytokinesis including apical midbody migration in polarizing epithelial cells of the gut, pharynx and sensory neurons. Aurora B kinase, which is essential for several aspects of cytokinesis, remains apically localized in each of these tissues after internalization of midbody ring components. Aurora B inactivation disrupts cytokinesis and causes defects in apical structures, even if inactivated post-mitotically. Therefore, cytokinesis is implemented in a specialized way during epithelial polarization and Aurora B has a new role in the formation of the apical surface.

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    01/17/20 | Correlative three-dimensional super-resolution and block-face electron microscopy of whole vitreously frozen cells.
    Hoffman DP, Shtengel G, Xu CS, Campbell KR, Freeman M, Wang L, Milkie DE, Pasolli HA, Iyer N, Bogovic JA, Stabley DR, Shirinifard A, Pang S, Peale D, Schaefer K, Pomp W, Chang C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Kirchhausen T, Solecki DJ, Betzig E, Hess HF
    Science. 2020 Jan 17;367(6475):. doi: 10.1126/science.aaz5357

    Within cells, the spatial compartmentalization of thousands of distinct proteins serves a multitude of diverse biochemical needs. Correlative super-resolution (SR) fluorescence and electron microscopy (EM) can elucidate protein spatial relationships to global ultrastructure, but has suffered from tradeoffs of structure preservation, fluorescence retention, resolution, and field of view. We developed a platform for three-dimensional cryogenic SR and focused ion beam-milled block-face EM across entire vitreously frozen cells. The approach preserves ultrastructure while enabling independent SR and EM workflow optimization. We discovered unexpected protein-ultrastructure relationships in mammalian cells including intranuclear vesicles containing endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins, web-like adhesions between cultured neurons, and chromatin domains subclassified on the basis of transcriptional activity. Our findings illustrate the value of a comprehensive multimodal view of ultrastructural variability across whole cells.

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    01/11/20 | Tiled reconstruction improves structured illumination microscopy.
    Hoffman DP, Betzig E
    bioRxiv. 2020 Jan 11:. doi: 10.1101/2020.01.06.895318

    Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is widely used for fast, long-term, live-cell super-resolution imaging. However, SIM images can contain substantial artifacts if the sample does not conform to the underlying assumptions of the reconstruction algorithm. Here we describe a simple, easy to implement, process that can be combined with any reconstruction algorithm to alleviate many common SIM reconstruction artifacts and briefly discuss possible extensions.

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