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5 Janelia Publications

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    11/06/14 | Anesthetized- and awake-patched whole-cell recordings in freely moving rats using UV-cured collar-based electrode stabilization.
    Lee D, Shtengel G, Osborne JE, Lee AK
    Nature Protocols. 2014 Nov 06;9(12):2784-95. doi: 10.1038/nprot.2014.190

    Intracellular recording allows precise measurement and manipulation of individual neurons, but it requires stable mechanical contact between the electrode and the cell membrane, and thus it has remained challenging to perform in behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings in freely moving animals can be obtained by rigidly fixing ('anchoring') the pipette electrode to the head; however, previous anchoring procedures were slow and often caused substantial pipette movement, resulting in loss of the recording or of recording quality. We describe a UV-transparent collar and UV-cured adhesive technique that rapidly (within 15 s) anchors pipettes in place with virtually no movement, thus substantially improving the reliability, yield and quality of freely moving whole-cell recordings. Recordings are first obtained from anesthetized or awake head-fixed rats. UV light cures the thin adhesive layers linking pipette to collar to head. Then, the animals are rapidly and smoothly released for recording during unrestrained behavior. The anesthetized-patched version can be completed in ∼4-7 h (excluding histology) and the awake-patched version requires ∼1-4 h per day for ∼2 weeks. These advances should greatly facilitate studies of neuronal integration and plasticity in identified cells during natural behaviors.

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    06/27/14 | Imaging ATUM ultrathin section libraries with WaferMapper: a multi-scale approach to EM reconstruction of neural circuits.
    Hayworth KJ, Morgan JL, Schalek R, Berger DR, Hildebrand DG, Lichtman JW
    Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2014 Jun 27;8:68. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00068

    The automated tape-collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM) makes it possible to collect large numbers of ultrathin sections quickly-the equivalent of a petabyte of high resolution images each day. However, even high throughput image acquisition strategies generate images far more slowly (at present ~1 terabyte per day). We therefore developed WaferMapper, a software package that takes a multi-resolution approach to mapping and imaging select regions within a library of ultrathin sections. This automated method selects and directs imaging of corresponding regions within each section of an ultrathin section library (UTSL) that may contain many thousands of sections. Using WaferMapper, it is possible to map thousands of tissue sections at low resolution and target multiple points of interest for high resolution imaging based on anatomical landmarks. The program can also be used to expand previously imaged regions, acquire data under different imaging conditions, or re-image after additional tissue treatments.

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    01/26/14 | Correlative super-resolution fluorescence and metal-replica transmission electron microscopy.
    Sochacki KA, Shtengel G, Van Engelenburg SB, Hess HF, Taraska JW
    Nature Methods. 2014 Jan 26;11(3):305-8. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.2816

    We combine super-resolution localization fluorescence microscopy with transmission electron microscopy of metal replicas to locate proteins on the landscape of the cellular plasma membrane at the nanoscale. We validate robust correlation on the scale of 20 nm by imaging endogenous clathrin (in two and three dimensions) and apply the method to find the previously unknown three-dimensional position of the endocytic protein epsin on clathrin-coated structures at the plasma membrane.

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    01/16/14 | Distribution of ESCRT machinery at HIV assembly sites reveals virus scaffolding of ESCRT subunits.
    Van Engelenburg SB, Shtengel G, Sengupta P, Waki K, Jarnik M, Ablan SD, Freed EO, Hess HF, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Science. 2014 Jan 16;343(6171):653-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1247786

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hijacks the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) to mediate virus release from infected cells. The nanoscale organization of ESCRT machinery necessary for mediating viral abscission is unclear. Here, we applied three-dimensional superresolution microscopy and correlative electron microscopy to delineate the organization of ESCRT components at HIV assembly sites. We observed ESCRT subunits localized within the head of budding virions and released particles, with head-localized levels of CHMP2A decreasing relative to Tsg101 and CHMP4B upon virus abscission. Thus, the driving force for HIV release may derive from initial scaffolding of ESCRT subunits within the viral bud interior followed by plasma membrane association and selective remodeling of ESCRT subunits.

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    01/01/14 | Imaging cellular ultrastructure by PALM, iPALM, and correlative iPALM-EM.
    Shtengel G, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Goh WI, Hess HF, Kanchanawong P
    Methods in Cell Biology. 2014;123:273-94. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-420138-5.00015-X

    Many biomolecules in cells can be visualized with high sensitivity and specificity by fluorescence microscopy. However, the resolution of conventional light microscopy is limited by diffraction to ~200-250nm laterally and >500nm axially. Here, we describe superresolution methods based on single-molecule localization analysis of photoswitchable fluorophores (PALM: photoactivated localization microscopy) as well as our recent three-dimensional (3D) method (iPALM: interferometric PALM) that allows imaging with a resolution better than 20nm in all three dimensions. Considerations for their implementations, applications to multicolor imaging, and a recent development that extend the imaging depth of iPALM to ~750nm are discussed. As the spatial resolution of superresolution fluorescence microscopy converges with that of electron microscopy (EM), direct imaging of the same specimen using both approaches becomes feasible. This could be particularly useful for cross validation of experiments, and thus, we also describe recent methods that were developed for correlative superresolution fluorescence and EM.

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