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2 Janelia Publications

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    04/01/11 | Wireless neural/EMG telemetry systems for small freely moving animals.
    Harrison RR, Fotowat H, Chan R, Kier RJ, Olberg R, Leonardo A, Gabbiani F
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems. 2011 Apr;5(2):103-11. doi: 10.1109/TBCAS.2011.2131140

    We have developed miniature telemetry systems that capture neural, EMG, and acceleration signals from a freely moving insect or other small animal and transmit the data wirelessly to a remote digital receiver. The systems are based on custom low-power integrated circuits (ICs) that amplify, filter, and digitize four biopotential signals using low-noise circuits. One of the chips also digitizes three acceleration signals from an off-chip microelectromechanical-system accelerometer. All information is transmitted over a wireless ~ 900-MHz telemetry link. The first unit, using a custom chip fabricated in a 0.6- μm BiCMOS process, weighs 0.79 g and runs for two hours on two small batteries. We have used this system to monitor neural and EMG signals in jumping and flying locusts as well as transdermal potentials in weakly swimming electric fish. The second unit, using a custom chip fabricated in a 0.35-μ m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS process, weighs 0.17 g and runs for five hours on a single 1.5-V battery. This system has been used to monitor neural potentials in untethered perching dragonflies.

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    02/23/11 | Imaging light responses of targeted neuron populations in the rodent retina.
    Borghuis BG, Tian L, Xu Y, Nikonov SS, Vardi N, Zemelman BV, Looger LL
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2011 Feb 23;31:2855-67. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6064-10.2011

    Decoding the wiring diagram of the retina requires simultaneous observation of activity in identified neuron populations. Available recording methods are limited in their scope: electrodes can access only a small fraction of neurons at once, whereas synthetic fluorescent indicator dyes label tissue indiscriminately. Here, we describe a method for studying retinal circuitry at cellular and subcellular levels combining two-photon microscopy and a genetically encoded calcium indicator. Using specific viral and promoter constructs to drive expression of GCaMP3, we labeled all five major neuron classes in the adult mouse retina. Stimulus-evoked GCaMP3 responses as imaged by two-photon microscopy permitted functional cell type annotation. Fluorescence responses were similar to those measured with the small molecule dye OGB-1. Fluorescence intensity correlated linearly with spike rates >10 spikes/s, and a significant change in fluorescence always reflected a significant change in spike firing rate. GCaMP3 expression had no apparent effect on neuronal function. Imaging at subcellular resolution showed compartment-specific calcium dynamics in multiple identified cell types.

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