Main Menu (Mobile)- Block

Main Menu - Block

custom | custom

Search Results

general_search_page-panel_pane_1 | views_panes

52 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 52 results
Your Criteria:
    02/10/21 | Biomolecular Condensates and Their Links to Cancer Progression.
    Cai D, Liu Z, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 2021 Feb 10:. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2021.01.002

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has emerged in recent years as an important physicochemical process for organizing diverse processes within cells via the formation of membraneless organelles termed biomolecular condensates. Emerging evidence now suggests that the formation and regulation of biomolecular condensates are also intricately linked to cancer formation and progression. We review the most recent literature linking the existence and/or dissolution of biomolecular condensates to different hallmarks of cancer formation and progression. We then discuss the opportunities that this condensate perspective provides for cancer research and the development of novel therapeutic approaches, including the perturbation of condensates by small-molecule inhibitors.

    View Publication Page
    02/01/21 | Image-based pooled whole-genome CRISPRi screening for subcellular phenotypes.
    Kanfer G, Sarraf SA, Maman Y, Baldwin H, Dominguez-Martin E, Johnson KR, Ward ME, Kampmann M, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Youle RJ
    Journal of Cell Biology. 2021 Feb 01;220(2):. doi: 10.1083/jcb.202006180

    Genome-wide CRISPR screens have transformed our ability to systematically interrogate human gene function, but are currently limited to a subset of cellular phenotypes. We report a novel pooled screening approach for a wider range of cellular and subtle subcellular phenotypes. Machine learning and convolutional neural network models are trained on the subcellular phenotype to be queried. Genome-wide screening then utilizes cells stably expressing dCas9-KRAB (CRISPRi), photoactivatable fluorescent protein (PA-mCherry), and a lentiviral guide RNA (gRNA) pool. Cells are screened by using microscopy and classified by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, which precisely identify the genetically altered phenotype. Cells with the phenotype of interest are photoactivated and isolated via flow cytometry, and the gRNAs are identified by sequencing. A proof-of-concept screen accurately identified PINK1 as essential for Parkin recruitment to mitochondria. A genome-wide screen identified factors mediating TFEB relocation from the nucleus to the cytosol upon prolonged starvation. Twenty-one of the 64 hits called by the neural network model were independently validated, revealing new effectors of TFEB subcellular localization. This approach, AI-photoswitchable screening (AI-PS), offers a novel screening platform capable of classifying a broad range of mammalian subcellular morphologies, an approach largely unattainable with current methodologies at genome-wide scale.

    View Publication Page
    01/28/21 | RNA transport and local translation in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease.
    Fernandopulle MS, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Ward ME
    Nature Neuroscience. 2021 Jan 28:. doi: 10.1038/s41593-020-00785-2

    Neurons decentralize protein synthesis from the cell body to support the active metabolism of remote dendritic and axonal compartments. The neuronal RNA transport apparatus, composed of cis-acting RNA regulatory elements, neuronal transport granule proteins, and motor adaptor complexes, drives the long-distance RNA trafficking required for local protein synthesis. Over the past decade, advances in human genetics, subcellular biochemistry, and high-resolution imaging have implicated each member of the apparatus in several neurodegenerative diseases, establishing failed RNA transport and associated processes as a unifying pathomechanism. In this review, we deconstruct the RNA transport apparatus, exploring each constituent's role in RNA localization and illuminating their unique contributions to neurodegeneration.

    View Publication Page
    12/15/20 | In situ differentiation of iridophore crystallotypes underlies zebrafish stripe patterning.
    Gur D, Bain EJ, Johnson KR, Aman AJ, Pasoili HA, Flynn JD, Allen MC, Deheyn DD, Lee JC, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Parichy DM
    Nature Communications. 2020 Dec 15;11(1):6391. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-20088-1

    Skin color patterns are ubiquitous in nature, impact social behavior, predator avoidance, and protection from ultraviolet irradiation. A leading model system for vertebrate skin patterning is the zebrafish; its alternating blue stripes and yellow interstripes depend on light-reflecting cells called iridophores. It was suggested that the zebrafish's color pattern arises from a single type of iridophore migrating differentially to stripes and interstripes. However, here we find that iridophores do not migrate between stripes and interstripes but instead differentiate and proliferate in-place, based on their micro-environment. RNA-sequencing analysis further reveals that stripe and interstripe iridophores have different transcriptomic states, while cryogenic-scanning-electron-microscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction identify different crystal-arrays architectures, indicating that stripe and interstripe iridophores are different cell types. Based on these results, we present an alternative model of skin patterning in zebrafish in which distinct iridophore crystallotypes containing specialized, physiologically responsive, organelles arise in stripe and interstripe by in-situ differentiation.

    View Publication Page
    12/01/20 | The evolution of a cell biologist.
    Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2020 Dec 01;31(25):2763-2767. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E20-09-0603

    I am honored and humbled to receive the E. B. Wilson Medal and happy to share some reflections on my journey as a cell biologist. It took me a while to realize that my interest in biology would center on how cells are spatially and dynamically organized. From an initial fascination with cellular structures I came to appreciate that cells exhibit dynamism across all scales-from their molecules, to molecular complexes, to organelles. Uncovering the principles of this dynamism, including new ways to observe and quantify it, has been the guiding star of my work.

    View Publication Page
    11/01/20 | Mechanisms of procollagen and HSP47 sorting during ER-to-Golgi trafficking
    Omari S, Makareeva E, Gorrell L, Jarnik M, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S
    Matrix Biology. 2020 Nov 01;93:79-94. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2020.06.002

    Efficient quality control and export of procollagen from the cell is crucial for extracellular matrix homeostasis, yet it is still incompletely understood. One of the debated questions is the role of a collagen-specific ER chaperone HSP47 in these processes. Most ER chaperones preferentially bind to unfolded polypeptide chains, enabling selective export of natively folded proteins from the ER after chaperone release. In contrast, HSP47 preferentially binds to the natively folded procollagen and is believed to be released only in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi. HSP47 colocalization with procollagen in punctate structures observed by immunofluorescence imaging of fixed cells has thus been interpreted as evidence for HSP47 export from the ER together with procollagen in transport vesicles destined for ERGIC or Golgi. To understand the mechanism of this co-trafficking and its physiological significance, we imaged the dynamics of fluorescently tagged type I procollagen and HSP47 punctate structures in live MC3T3 murine osteoblasts with up to 120 nm spatial and 500 ms time resolution. Contrary to the prevailing model, we discovered that most bona fide carriers delivering procollagen from ER exit sites (ERESs) to Golgi contained no HSP47, unless the RDEL signal for ER retention in HSP47 was deleted or mutated. These transport intermediates exhibited characteristic rapid, directional motion along microtubules, while puncta with colocalized HSP47 and procollagen similar to the ones described before had only limited, stochastic motion. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the latter puncta (including the ones induced by ARF1 inhibition) were dilated regions of ER lumen, ERESs, or autophagic structures surrounded by lysosomal membranes. Procollagen was colocalized with HSP47 and ERGIC53 at ERESs. It was colocalized with ERGIC53 but not HSP47 in Golgi-bound transport intermediates. Our results suggest that procollagen and HSP47 sorting occurs at ERES before procollagen is exported from the ER in Golgi-bound transport intermediates, providing new insights into mechanisms of procollagen trafficking.

    View Publication Page
    07/27/20 | A general method to optimize and functionalize red-shifted rhodamine dyes.
    Grimm JB, Tkachuk AN, Xie L, Choi H, Mohar B, Falco N, Schaefer K, Patel R, Zheng Q, Liu Z, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Brown TA, Lavis LD
    Nature Methods. 2020 Jul 27:. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-0909-6

    Expanding the palette of fluorescent dyes is vital to push the frontier of biological imaging. Although rhodamine dyes remain the premier type of small-molecule fluorophore owing to their bioavailability and brightness, variants excited with far-red or near-infrared light suffer from poor performance due to their propensity to adopt a lipophilic, nonfluorescent form. We report a framework for rationalizing rhodamine behavior in biological environments and a general chemical modification for rhodamines that optimizes long-wavelength variants and enables facile functionalization with different chemical groups. This strategy yields red-shifted 'Janelia Fluor' (JF) dyes useful for biological imaging experiments in cells and in vivo.

    View Publication Page
    07/10/20 | Revisiting Membrane Microdomains and Phase Separation: A Viral Perspective
    Sengupta P, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Viruses. 2020 Jul 10;12(7):745. doi: 10.3390/v12070745

    Retroviruses selectively incorporate a specific subset of host cell proteins and lipids into their outer membrane when they bud out from the host plasma membrane. This specialized viral membrane composition is critical for both viral survivability and infectivity. Here, we review recent findings from live cell imaging of single virus assembly demonstrating that proteins and lipids sort into the HIV retroviral membrane by a mechanism of lipid-based phase partitioning. The findings showed that multimerizing HIV Gag at the assembly site creates a liquid-ordered lipid phase enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Proteins with affinity for this specialized lipid environment partition into it, resulting in the selective incorporation of proteins into the nascent viral membrane. Building on this and other work in the field, we propose a model describing how HIV Gag induces phase separation of the viral assembly site through a mechanism involving transbilayer coupling of lipid acyl chains and membrane curvature changes. Similar phase-partitioning pathways in response to multimerizing structural proteins likely help sort proteins into the membranes of other budding structures within cells.

    View Publication Page
    03/31/20 | ER membranes exhibit phase behavior at sites of organelle contact.
    King C, Sengupta P, Seo AY, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2020 March 31;117(13):7225-7235. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1910854117

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins and contacts every organelle of the cell, exchanging lipids and metabolites in a highly regulated manner. How the ER spatially segregates its numerous and diverse functions, including positioning nanoscopic contact sites with other organelles, is unclear. We demonstrate that hypotonic swelling of cells converts the ER and other membrane-bound organelles into micrometer-scale large intracellular vesicles (LICVs) that retain luminal protein content and maintain contact sites with each other through localized organelle tethers. Upon cooling, ER-derived LICVs phase-partition into microscopic domains having different lipid-ordering characteristics, which is reversible upon warming. Ordered ER lipid domains mark contact sites with ER and mitochondria, lipid droplets, endosomes, or plasma membrane, whereas disordered ER lipid domains mark contact sites with lysosomes or peroxisomes. Tethering proteins concentrate at ER–organelle contact sites, allowing time-dependent behavior of lipids and proteins to be studied at these sites. These findings demonstrate that LICVs provide a useful model system for studying the phase behavior and interactive properties of organelles in intact cells.

    View Publication Page
    02/26/20 | Nicotine exposure and neuronal activity regulate Golgi membrane dispersal and distribution
    Govind AP, Jeyifous O, Russell TA, Vaasjo LO, Yi Z, Weigel AV, Newell L, Koranda JL, Singh K, Valbuena F, Glick BS, Mukherjee J, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Zhuang X, Green WN
    bioRxiv. 2020 Feb 26:

    How nicotine exposure produces long-lasting changes that remodel neural circuits with addiction is unknown. Here, we report that long-term nicotine exposure alters the trafficking of α4β2-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2Rs) by dispersing and redistributing the Golgi apparatus. In cultured neurons, dispersed Golgi membranes were distributed throughout somata, dendrites and axons. Small, mobile vesicles in dendrites and axons lacked standard Golgi markers and were identified by other Golgi enzymes that modify glycans. Nicotine exposure increased levels of dispersed Golgi membranes, which required α4β2R expression. Similar nicotine-induced changes occurred in vivo at dopaminergic neurons at mouse nucleus accumbens terminals, consistent with these events contributing to nicotine’s addictive effects. Characterization in vitro demonstrated that dispersal was reversible, that dispersed Golgi membranes were functional, and that membranes were heterogenous in size, with smaller vesicles emerging from larger “ministacks”, similar to Golgi dispersal induced by nocadazole. Protocols that increased cultured neuronal synaptic excitability also increased Golgi dispersal, without the requirement of α4β2R expression. Our findings reveal novel activity- and nicotine-dependent changes in neuronal intracellular morphology. These changes regulate levels and location of dispersed Golgi membranes at dendrites and axons, which function in local trafficking at subdomains.

    View Publication Page