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66 Janelia Publications

Showing 31-40 of 66 results
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    06/14/19 | NDP52 tunes cortical actin interaction with astral microtubules for accurate spindle orientation.
    Yu H, Yang F, Dong P, Liao S, Liu WR, Zhao G, Qin B, Dou Z, Liu Z, Liu W, Zang J, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Liu X, Yao X
    Cell Research. 2019 Jun 14;29(8):666-79. doi: 10.1038/s41422-019-0189-9

    Oriented cell divisions are controlled by a conserved molecular cascade involving Gαi, LGN, and NuMA. Here, we show that NDP52 regulates spindle orientation via remodeling the polar cortical actin cytoskeleton. siRNA-mediated NDP52 suppression surprisingly revealed a ring-like compact subcortical F-actin architecture surrounding the spindle in prophase/prometaphase cells, which resulted in severe defects of astral microtubule growth and an aberrant spindle orientation. Remarkably, NDP52 recruited the actin assembly factor N-WASP and regulated the dynamics of the subcortical F-actin ring in mitotic cells. Mechanistically, NDP52 was found to bind to phosphatidic acid-containing vesicles, which absorbed cytoplasmic N-WASP to regulate local filamentous actin growth at the polar cortex. Our TIRFM analyses revealed that NDP52-containing vesicles anchored N-WASP and shortened the length of actin filaments in vitro. Based on these results we propose that NDP52-containing vesicles regulate cortical actin dynamics through N-WASP to accomplish a spatiotemporal regulation between astral microtubules and the actin network for proper spindle orientation and precise chromosome segregation. In this way, intracellular vesicles cooperate with microtubules and actin filaments to regulate proper mitotic progression. Since NDP52 is absent from yeast, we reason that metazoans have evolved an elaborate spindle positioning machinery to ensure accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis.

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    06/11/19 | Fate plasticity and reprogramming in genetically distinct populations of leucophores.
    Lewis VM, Saunders LM, Larson TA, Bain EJ, Sturiale SL, Gur D, Chowdhury S, Flynn JD, Allen MC, Deheyn DD, Lee JC, Simon JA, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Raible DW, Parichy DM
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Jun 11;116(24):11806-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1901021116

    Understanding genetic and cellular bases of adult form remains a fundamental goal at the intersection of developmental and evolutionary biology. The skin pigment cells of vertebrates, derived from embryonic neural crest, are a useful system for elucidating mechanisms of fate specification, pattern formation, and how particular phenotypes impact organismal behavior and ecology. In a survey of fishes, including the zebrafish , we identified two populations of white pigment cells-leucophores-one of which arises by transdifferentiation of adult melanophores and another of which develops from a yellow-orange xanthophore or xanthophore-like progenitor. Single-cell transcriptomic, mutational, chemical, and ultrastructural analyses of zebrafish leucophores revealed cell-type-specific chemical compositions, organelle configurations, and genetic requirements. At the organismal level, we identified distinct physiological responses of leucophores during environmental background matching, and we showed that leucophore complement influences behavior. Together, our studies reveal independently arisen pigment cell types and mechanisms of fate acquisition in zebrafish and illustrate how concerted analyses across hierarchical levels can provide insights into phenotypes and their evolution.

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    05/30/19 | Neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling protects against activity-induced fatty acid toxicity.
    Ioannou MS, Jackson J, Sheu S, Chang C, Weigel AV, Liu H, Pasolli HA, Xu CS, Pang S, Matthies D, Hess HF, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Liu Z
    Cell. 2019 May 30;177(6):1522-1535.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.001

    Metabolic coordination between neurons and astrocytes is critical for the health of the brain. However, neuron-astrocyte coupling of lipid metabolism, particularly in response to neural activity, remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that toxic fatty acids (FAs) produced in hyperactive neurons are transferred to astrocytic lipid droplets by ApoE-positive lipid particles. Astrocytes consume the FAs stored in lipid droplets via mitochondrial β-oxidation in response to neuronal activity and turn on a detoxification gene expression program. Our findings reveal that FA metabolism is coupled in neurons and astrocytes to protect neurons from FA toxicity during periods of enhanced activity. This coordinated mechanism for metabolizing FAs could underlie both homeostasis and a variety of disease states of the brain.

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    05/17/19 | De novo design of tunable, pH-driven conformational changes.
    Boyken SE, Benhaim MA, Busch F, Jia M, Back MJ, Choi H, Klima JC, Chen Z, Walkey C, Mileant A, Sahasrabuddhe A, Wei KY, Hodge EA, Byron S, Quijano-Rubio A, Sankaran B, King NP, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Wysocki VH, et al
    Science. 2019 May 17;364(6441):658-64. doi: 10.1126/science.aav7897

    The ability of naturally occurring proteins to change conformation in response to environmental changes is critical to biological function. Although there have been advances in the de novo design of stable proteins with a single, deep free-energy minimum, the design of conformational switches remains challenging. We present a general strategy to design pH-responsive protein conformational changes by precisely preorganizing histidine residues in buried hydrogen-bond networks. We design homotrimers and heterodimers that are stable above pH 6.5 but undergo cooperative, large-scale conformational changes when the pH is lowered and electrostatic and steric repulsion builds up as the network histidine residues become protonated. The transition pH and cooperativity can be controlled through the number of histidine-containing networks and the strength of the surrounding hydrophobic interactions. Upon disassembly, the designed proteins disrupt lipid membranes both in vitro and after being endocytosed in mammalian cells. Our results demonstrate that environmentally triggered conformational changes can now be programmed by de novo protein design.

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    04/01/19 | A lipid-based partitioning mechanism for selective incorporation of proteins into membranes of HIV particles.
    Sengupta P, Seo AY, Pasolli HA, Song YE, Johnson M, Lippincott-Schwartz J
    Nature Cell Biology. 2019 Apr;21(4):452-461. doi: 10.1038/s41556-019-0300-y

    Particles that bud off from the cell surface, including viruses and microvesicles, typically have a unique membrane protein composition distinct from that of the originating plasma membrane. This selective protein composition enables viruses to evade the immune response and infect other cells. But how membrane proteins sort into budding viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains unclear. Proteins could passively distribute into HIV-assembly-site membranes producing compositions resembling pre-existing plasma-membrane domains. Here, we demonstrate that proteins instead sort actively into HIV-assembly-site membranes, generating compositions enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids that undergo continuous remodeling. Proteins are recruited into and removed from the HIV assembly site through lipid-based partitioning, initiated by oligomerization of the HIV structural protein Gag. Changes in membrane curvature at the assembly site further amplify this sorting process. Thus, a lipid-based sorting mechanism, aided by increasing membrane curvature, generates the unique membrane composition of the HIV surface.

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    02/13/19 | Regulation of plasma membrane nanodomains of the water channel aquaporin-3 revealed by fixed and live photoactivated localization microscopy.
    Arnspang EC, Sengupta P, Mortensen KI, Jensen HH, Hahn U, Jensen EB, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Nejsum LN
    Nano Letters. 2019 Feb 13;19(2):699-707. doi: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03721

    Several aquaporin (AQP) water channels are short-term regulated by the messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), including AQP3. Bulk measurements show that cAMP can change diffusive properties of AQP3; however, it remains unknown how elevated cAMP affects AQP3 organization at the nanoscale. Here we analyzed AQP3 nano-organization following cAMP stimulation using photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) of fixed cells combined with pair correlation analysis. Moreover, in live cells, we combined PALM acquisitions of single fluorophores with single-particle tracking (spt-PALM). These analyses revealed that AQP3 tends to cluster and that the diffusive mobility is confined to nanodomains with radii of ∼150 nm. This domain size increases by ∼30% upon elevation of cAMP, which, however, is not accompanied by a significant increase in the confined diffusion coefficient. This regulation of AQP3 organization at the nanoscale may be important for understanding the mechanisms of water AQP3-mediated water transport across plasma membranes.

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    01/18/19 | Cortical column and whole-brain imaging with molecular contrast and nanoscale resolution.
    Gao R, Asano SM, Upadhyayula S, Pisarev I, Milkie DE, Liu T, Singh V, Graves AR, Huynh GH, Zhao Y, Bogovic JA, Colonell J, Ott CM, Zugates CT, Tappan S, Rodriguez A, Mosaliganti KR, Sheu S, Pasolli HA, et al
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 2019 Jan 18;363(6424):eaau8302. doi: 10.1126/science.aau8302

    Optical and electron microscopy have made tremendous inroads toward understanding the complexity of the brain. However, optical microscopy offers insufficient resolution to reveal subcellular details, and electron microscopy lacks the throughput and molecular contrast to visualize specific molecular constituents over millimeter-scale or larger dimensions. We combined expansion microscopy and lattice light-sheet microscopy to image the nanoscale spatial relationships between proteins across the thickness of the mouse cortex or the entire Drosophila brain. These included synaptic proteins at dendritic spines, myelination along axons, and presynaptic densities at dopaminergic neurons in every fly brain region. The technology should enable statistically rich, large-scale studies of neural development, sexual dimorphism, degree of stereotypy, and structural correlations to behavior or neural activity, all with molecular contrast.

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    12/11/18 | MYC induces a hybrid energetics program early in cell reprogramming.
    Prieto J, Seo AY, León M, Santacatterina F, Torresano L, Palomino-Schätzlein M, Giménez K, Vallet-Sánchez A, Ponsoda X, Pineda-Lucena A, Cuezva JM, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Torres J
    Stem Cell Reports. 2018 Dec 11;11(6):1479-92. doi: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.10.018

    Cell reprogramming is thought to be associated with a full metabolic switch from an oxidative- to a glycolytic-based metabolism. However, neither the dynamics nor the factors controlling this metabolic switch are fully understood. By using cellular, biochemical, protein array, metabolomic, and respirometry analyses, we found that c-MYC establishes a robust bivalent energetics program early in cell reprogramming. Cells prone to undergo reprogramming exhibit high mitochondrial membrane potential and display a hybrid metabolism. We conclude that MYC proteins orchestrate a rewiring of somatic cell metabolism early in cell reprogramming, whereby somatic cells acquire the phenotypic plasticity necessary for their transition to pluripotency in response to either intrinsic or external cues.

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    11/15/18 | Visualizing intracellular organelle and cytoskeletal interactions at nanoscale resolution on millisecond timescales.
    Guo Y, Li D, Zhang S, Yang Y, Liu J, Wang X, Liu C, Milkie DE, Moore RP, Tulu US, Kiehart DP, Hu J, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Betzig E, Li D
    Cell. 2018 Nov 15;175(5):1430-42. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.09.057

    In eukaryotic cells, organelles and the cytoskeleton undergo highly dynamic yet organized interactions capable of orchestrating complex cellular functions. Visualizing these interactions requires noninvasive, long-duration imaging of the intracellular environment at high spatiotemporal resolution and low background. To achieve these normally opposing goals, we developed grazing incidence structured illumination microscopy (GI-SIM) that is capable of imaging dynamic events near the basal cell cortex at 97-nm resolution and 266 frames/s over thousands of time points. We employed multi-color GI-SIM to characterize the fast dynamic interactions of diverse organelles and the cytoskeleton, shedding new light on the complex behaviors of these structures. Precise measurements of microtubule growth or shrinkage events helped distinguish among models of microtubule dynamic instability. Analysis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions with other organelles or microtubules uncovered new ER remodeling mechanisms, such as hitchhiking of the ER on motile organelles. Finally, ER-mitochondria contact sites were found to promote both mitochondrial fission and fusion.

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    10/04/18 | Noncanonical autophagy at ER exit sites regulates procollagen turnover.
    Omari S, Makareeva E, Roberts-Pilgrim A, Mirigian L, Jarnik M, Ott C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2018 Oct 04;115(43):E10099-108. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1814552115

    Type I collagen is the main component of bone matrix and other connective tissues. Rerouting of its procollagen precursor to a degradative pathway is crucial for osteoblast survival in pathologies involving excessive intracellular buildup of procollagen that is improperly folded and/or trafficked. What cellular mechanisms underlie this rerouting remains unclear. To study these mechanisms, we employed live-cell imaging and correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) to examine procollagen trafficking both in wild-type mouse osteoblasts and osteoblasts expressing a bone pathology-causing mutant procollagen. We found that although most procollagen molecules successfully trafficked through the secretory pathway in these cells, a subpopulation did not. The latter molecules appeared in numerous dispersed puncta colocalizing with COPII subunits, autophagy markers and ubiquitin machinery, with more puncta seen in mutant procollagen-expressing cells. Blocking endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES) formation suppressed the number of these puncta, suggesting they formed after procollagen entry into ERESs. The punctate structures containing procollagen, COPII, and autophagic markers did not move toward the Golgi but instead were relatively immobile. They appeared to be quickly engulfed by nearby lysosomes through a bafilomycin-insensitive pathway. CLEM and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggested engulfment occurred through a noncanonical form of autophagy resembling microautophagy of ERESs. Overall, our findings reveal that a subset of procollagen molecules is directed toward lysosomal degradation through an autophagic pathway originating at ERESs, providing a mechanism to remove excess procollagen from cells.

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