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1866 Janelia Publications

Showing 51-60 of 1866 results
10/23/20 | Brain-wide, scale-wide physiology underlying behavioral flexibility in zebrafish.
Mu Y, Narayan S, Mensh BD, Ahrens MB
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 2020 Oct 19;64:151-160. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2020.08.013

The brain is tasked with choosing actions that maximize an animal's chances of survival and reproduction. These choices must be flexible and informed by the current state of the environment, the needs of the body, and the outcomes of past actions. This information is physiologically encoded and processed across different brain regions on a wide range of spatial scales, from molecules in single synapses to networks of brain areas. Uncovering these spatially distributed neural interactions underlying behavior requires investigations that span a similar range of spatial scales. Larval zebrafish, given their small size, transparency, and ease of genetic access, are a good model organism for such investigations, allowing the use of modern microscopy, molecular biology, and computational techniques. These approaches are yielding new insights into the mechanistic basis of behavioral states, which we review here and compare to related studies in mammalian species.

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10/16/20 | Behavioral state coding by molecularly defined paraventricular hypothalamic cell type ensembles.
Xu S, Yang H, Menon V, Lemire AL, Wang L, Henry FE, Turaga SC, Sternson SM
Science. 2020 Oct 16;370(6514):. doi: 10.1126/science.abb2494

Brains encode behaviors using neurons amenable to systematic classification by gene expression. The contribution of molecular identity to neural coding is not understood because of the challenges involved with measuring neural dynamics and molecular information from the same cells. We developed CaRMA (calcium and RNA multiplexed activity) imaging based on recording in vivo single-neuron calcium dynamics followed by gene expression analysis. We simultaneously monitored activity in hundreds of neurons in mouse paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH). Combinations of cell-type marker genes had predictive power for neuronal responses across 11 behavioral states. The PVH uses combinatorial assemblies of molecularly defined neuron populations for grouped-ensemble coding of survival behaviors. The neuropeptide receptor neuropeptide Y receptor type 1 (Npy1r) amalgamated multiple cell types with similar responses. Our results show that molecularly defined neurons are important processing units for brain function.

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10/16/20 | Robotic Multi-Probe-Single-Actuator Inchworm Neural Microdrive
Smith R, Kolb I, Tanaka S, Lee A, Harris T, Barbic M
bioRxiv. 2020 Oct 16:

Electrophysiology is one of the major experimental techniques used in neuroscience. The favorable spatial and temporal resolution as well as the increasingly larger site counts of brain recording electrodes contribute to the popularity and importance of electrophysiology in neuroscience. Such electrodes are typically mechanically placed in the brain to perform acute or chronic freely moving animal measurements. The micro positioners currently used for such tasks employ a single translator per independent probe being placed into the targeted brain region, leading to significant size and weight restrictions. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a miniature robotic multi-probe neural microdrive that utilizes novel phase-change-material-filled resistive heater micro-grippers. The microscopic dimensions, gentle gripping action, independent electronic actuation control, and high packing density of the grippers allow for micrometer-precision independent positioning of multiple arbitrarily shaped parallel neural electrodes with only a single piezo actuator in an inchworm motor configuration. This multi-probe-single-actuator design allows for significant size and weight reduction, as well as remote control and potential automation of the microdrive. We demonstrate accurate placement of multiple independent recording electrodes into the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus in vivo in acute and chronic settings. Thus, our robotic neural microdrive technology is applicable towards basic neuroscience and clinical studies, as well as other multi-probe or multi-sensor micro-positioning applications.

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10/14/20 | The neuroanatomical ultrastructure and function of a biological ring attractor.
Turner-Evans DB, Jensen KT, Ali S, Paterson T, Sheridan A, Ray RP, Wolff T, Lauritzen JS, Rubin GM, Bock DD, Jayaraman V
Neuron. 2020 Oct 14;108(1):145-63. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.08.006

Neural representations of head direction (HD) have been discovered in many species. Theoretical work has proposed that the dynamics associated with these representations are generated, maintained, and updated by recurrent network structures called ring attractors. We evaluated this theorized structure-function relationship by performing electron-microscopy-based circuit reconstruction and RNA profiling of identified cell types in the HD system of Drosophila melanogaster. We identified motifs that have been hypothesized to maintain the HD representation in darkness, update it when the animal turns, and tether it to visual cues. Functional studies provided support for the proposed roles of individual excitatory or inhibitory circuit elements in shaping activity. We also discovered recurrent connections between neuronal arbors with mixed pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Our results confirm that the Drosophila HD network contains the core components of a ring attractor while also revealing unpredicted structural features that might enhance the network's computational power.

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10/06/20 | Nuclear crowding and nonlinear diffusion during interkinetic nuclear migration in the zebrafish retina.
Azizi A, Herrmann A, Wan Y, Buse SJ, Keller PJ, Goldstein RE, Harris WA
eLife. 2020 Oct 06;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.58635

An important question in early neural development is the origin of stochastic nuclear movement between apical and basal surfaces of neuroepithelia during interkinetic nuclear migration. Tracking of nuclear subpopulations has shown evidence of diffusion - mean squared displacements growing linearly in time - and suggested crowding from cell division at the apical surface drives basalward motion. Yet, this hypothesis has not yet been tested, and the forces involved not quantified. We employ long-term, rapid light-sheet and two-photon imaging of early zebrafish retinogenesis to track entire populations of nuclei within the tissue. The time-varying concentration profiles show clear evidence of crowding as nuclei reach close-packing and are quantitatively described by a nonlinear diffusion model. Considerations of nuclear motion constrained inside the enveloping cell membrane show that concentration-dependent stochastic forces inside cells, compatible in magnitude to those found in cytoskeletal transport, can explain the observed magnitude of the diffusion constant.

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10/06/20 | The mTORC1/S6K/PDCD4/eIF4A axis determines outcome of mitotic arrest.
Moustafa-Kamal M, Kucharski TJ, El-Assaad W, Abbas YM, Gandin V, Nagar B, Pelletier J, Topisirovic I, Teodoro JG
Cell Reports. 2020 Oct 06;33(1):108230. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108230

mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase and a master regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Raptor, a scaffolding protein that recruits substrates to mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), is known to be phosphorylated during mitosis, but the significance of this phosphorylation remains largely unknown. Here we show that raptor expression and mTORC1 activity are dramatically reduced in cells arrested in mitosis. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable raptor mutant reactivates mTORC1 and significantly reduces cytotoxicity of the mitotic poison Taxol. This effect is mediated via degradation of PDCD4, a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits eIF4A activity and is negatively regulated by the mTORC1/S6K pathway. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of eIF4A is able to enhance the effects of Taxol and restore sensitivity in Taxol-resistant cancer cells. These findings indicate that the mTORC1/S6K/PDCD4/eIF4A axis has a pivotal role in the death versus slippage decision during mitotic arrest and may be exploited clinically to treat tumors resistant to anti-mitotic agents.

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10/06/20 | Simultaneous computation of dynamical and equilibrium information using a weighted ensemble of trajectories
Suarez E, Lettieri S, Stringer CA, Zwier MC, Subramanian SR, Chong LT, Zuckerman DM
Journal of chemical theory and computation;10:2658–2667
10/06/20 | Simultaneous computation of dynamical and equilibrium information using a weighted ensemble of trajectories
Suarez E, Lettieri S, Stringer CA, Zwier MC, Subramanian SR, Chong LT, Zuckerman DM
Journal of chemical theory and computation;10:2658–2667
10/06/20 | Simultaneous computation of dynamical and equilibrium information using a weighted ensemble of trajectories
Suarez E, Lettieri S, Stringer CA, Zwier MC, Subramanian SR, Chong LT, Zuckerman DM
Journal of chemical theory and computation;10:2658–2667
10/05/20 | Circuit and behavioral mechanisms of sexual rejection by drosophila females.
Wang F, Wang K, Forknall N, Parekh R, Dickson BJ
Current Biology. 2020 Oct 05;30(19):. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.083

The mating decisions of Drosophila melanogaster females are primarily revealed through either of two discrete actions: opening of the vaginal plates to allow copulation, or extrusion of the ovipositor to reject the male. Both actions are triggered by the male courtship song, and both are dependent upon the female's mating status. Virgin females are more likely to open their vaginal plates in response to song; mated females are more likely to extrude their ovipositor. Here, we examine the neural cause and behavioral consequence of ovipositor extrusion. We show that the DNp13 descending neurons act as command-type neurons for ovipositor extrusion, and that ovipositor extrusion is an effective deterrent only when performed by females that have previously mated. The DNp13 neurons respond to male song via direct synaptic input from the pC2l auditory neurons. Mating status does not modulate the song responses of DNp13 neurons, but rather how effectively they can engage the motor circuits for ovipositor extrusion. We present evidence that mating status information is mediated by ppk sensory neurons in the uterus, which are activated upon ovulation. Vaginal plate opening and ovipositor extrusion are thus controlled by anatomically and functionally distinct circuits, highlighting the diversity of neural decision-making circuits even in the context of closely related behaviors with shared exteroceptive and interoceptive inputs.

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