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2224 Janelia Publications

Showing 51-60 of 2224 results
10/26/22 | Rapid reconstruction of neural circuits using tissue expansion and lattice light sheet microscopy
Joshua L. Lillvis , Hideo Otsuna , Xiaoyu Ding , Igor Pisarev , Takashi Kawase , Jennifer Colonell , Konrad Rokicki , Cristian Goina , Ruixuan Gao , Amy Hu , Kaiyu Wang , John Bogovic , Daniel E. Milkie , Edward S. Boyden , Stephan Saalfeld , Paul W. Tillberg , Barry J. Dickson
eLife. 2022 Oct 26:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.81248

Electron microscopy (EM) allows for the reconstruction of dense neuronal connectomes but suffers from low throughput, limiting its application to small numbers of reference specimens. We developed a protocol and analysis pipeline using tissue expansion and lattice light-sheet microscopy (ExLLSM) to rapidly reconstruct selected circuits across many samples with single synapse resolution and molecular contrast. We validate this approach in Drosophila, demonstrating that it yields synaptic counts similar to those obtained by EM, can be used to compare counts across sex and experience, and to correlate structural connectivity with functional connectivity. This approach fills a critical methodological gap in studying variability in the structure and function of neural circuits across individuals within and between species.

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10/22/22 | Single molecule microscopy to profile the effect of zinc status on transcription factor dynamics.
Damon LJ, Aaron J, Palmer AE
Scientific Reports. 2022 Oct 22;12(1):17789. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-22634-x

The regulation of transcription is a complex process that involves binding of transcription factors (TFs) to specific sequences, recruitment of cofactors and chromatin remodelers, assembly of the pre-initiation complex and recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Increasing evidence suggests that TFs are highly dynamic and interact only transiently with DNA. Single molecule microscopy techniques are powerful approaches for tracking individual TF molecules as they diffuse in the nucleus and interact with DNA. Here we employ multifocus microscopy and highly inclined laminated optical sheet microscopy to track TF dynamics in response to perturbations in labile zinc inside cells. We sought to define whether zinc-dependent TFs sense changes in the labile zinc pool by determining whether their dynamics and DNA binding can be modulated by zinc. We used fluorescently tagged versions of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), with two C4 zinc finger domains, and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), with eleven C2H2 zinc finger domains. We found that GR was largely insensitive to perturbations of zinc, whereas CTCF was significantly affected by zinc depletion and its dwell time was affected by zinc elevation. These results indicate that at least some transcription factors are sensitive to zinc dynamics, revealing a potential new layer of transcriptional regulation.

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10/19/22 | In vivo visualization of nitrate dynamics using a genetically encoded biosensor
Yen-Ning Chen , Heather Cartwright , Cheng-Hsun Ho
Science Advances. 2022 Oct 19;8(42):. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abq4915

Nitrate (NO3-) uptake and distribution are critical to plant life. Although the upstream regulation of nitrate uptake and downstream responses to nitrate in a variety of cells have been well-studied, it is still not possible to directly visualize the spatial and temporal distribution of nitrate with high resolution at the cellular level. Here, we report a nuclear-localized, genetically encoded biosensor, nlsNitraMeter3.0, for the quantitative visualization of nitrate distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana. The biosensor tracked the spatiotemporal distribution of nitrate along the primary root axis and disruptions by genetic mutation of transport (low nitrate uptake) and assimilation (high nitrate accumulation). The developed biosensor effectively monitors nitrate concentrations at cellular level in real time and spatiotemporal changes during the plant life cycle.

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10/17/22 | Omnipose: a high-precision morphology-independent solution for bacterial cell segmentation.
Cutler KJ, Stringer C, Lo TW, Rappez L, Stroustrup N, Brook Peterson S, Wiggins PA, Mougous JD
Nature Methods. 2022 Oct 17:. doi: 10.1038/s41592-022-01639-4

Advances in microscopy hold great promise for allowing quantitative and precise measurement of morphological and molecular phenomena at the single-cell level in bacteria; however, the potential of this approach is ultimately limited by the availability of methods to faithfully segment cells independent of their morphological or optical characteristics. Here, we present Omnipose, a deep neural network image-segmentation algorithm. Unique network outputs such as the gradient of the distance field allow Omnipose to accurately segment cells on which current algorithms, including its predecessor, Cellpose, produce errors. We show that Omnipose achieves unprecedented segmentation performance on mixed bacterial cultures, antibiotic-treated cells and cells of elongated or branched morphology. Furthermore, the benefits of Omnipose extend to non-bacterial subjects, varied imaging modalities and three-dimensional objects. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of Omnipose in the characterization of extreme morphological phenotypes that arise during interbacterial antagonism. Our results distinguish Omnipose as a powerful tool for characterizing diverse and arbitrarily shaped cell types from imaging data.

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10/12/22 | Structure of the OMEGA nickase IsrB in complex with ωRNA and target DNA.
Hirano S, Kappel K, Altae-Tran H, Faure G, Wilkinson ME, Kannan S, Demircioglu FE, Yan R, Shiozaki M, Yu Z, Makarova KS, Koonin EV, Macrae RK, Zhang F
Nature. 2022 Oct 12;610(7932):575-581. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-05324-6

RNA-guided systems, such as CRISPR-Cas, combine programmable substrate recognition with enzymatic function, a combination that has been used advantageously to develop powerful molecular technologies. Structural studies of these systems have illuminated how the RNA and protein jointly recognize and cleave their substrates, guiding rational engineering for further technology development. Recent work identified a new class of RNA-guided systems, termed OMEGA, which include IscB, the likely ancestor of Cas9, and the nickase IsrB, a homologue of IscB lacking the HNH nuclease domain. IsrB consists of only around 350 amino acids, but its small size is counterbalanced by a relatively large RNA guide (roughly 300-nt ωRNA). Here, we report the cryogenic-electron microscopy structure of Desulfovirgula thermocuniculi IsrB (DtIsrB) in complex with its cognate ωRNA and a target DNA. We find the overall structure of the IsrB protein shares a common scaffold with Cas9. In contrast to Cas9, however, which uses a recognition (REC) lobe to facilitate target selection, IsrB relies on its ωRNA, part of which forms an intricate ternary structure positioned analogously to REC. Structural analyses of IsrB and its ωRNA as well as comparisons to other RNA-guided systems highlight the functional interplay between protein and RNA, advancing our understanding of the biology and evolution of these diverse systems.

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10/10/22 | Structured random receptive fields enable informative sensory encodings.
Pandey B, Pachitariu M, Brunton BW, Harris KD
PLoS Computational Biology. 2022 Oct 10;18(10):e1010484. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010484

Brains must represent the outside world so that animals survive and thrive. In early sensory systems, neural populations have diverse receptive fields structured to detect important features in inputs, yet significant variability has been ignored in classical models of sensory neurons. We model neuronal receptive fields as random, variable samples from parameterized distributions and demonstrate this model in two sensory modalities using data from insect mechanosensors and mammalian primary visual cortex. Our approach leads to a significant theoretical connection between the foundational concepts of receptive fields and random features, a leading theory for understanding artificial neural networks. The modeled neurons perform a randomized wavelet transform on inputs, which removes high frequency noise and boosts the signal. Further, these random feature neurons enable learning from fewer training samples and with smaller networks in artificial tasks. This structured random model of receptive fields provides a unifying, mathematically tractable framework to understand sensory encodings across both spatial and temporal domains.

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10/06/22 | Rationalized deep learning super-resolution microscopy for sustained live imaging of rapid subcellular processes.
Qiao C, Li D, Liu Y, Zhang S, Liu K, Liu C, Guo Y, Jiang T, Fang C, Li N, Zeng Y, He K, Zhu X, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Dai Q, Li D
Nature Biotechnology. 2022 Oct 06:. doi: 10.1038/s41587-022-01471-3

The goal when imaging bioprocesses with optical microscopy is to acquire the most spatiotemporal information with the least invasiveness. Deep neural networks have substantially improved optical microscopy, including image super-resolution and restoration, but still have substantial potential for artifacts. In this study, we developed rationalized deep learning (rDL) for structured illumination microscopy and lattice light sheet microscopy (LLSM) by incorporating prior knowledge of illumination patterns and, thereby, rationally guiding the network to denoise raw images. Here we demonstrate that rDL structured illumination microscopy eliminates spectral bias-induced resolution degradation and reduces model uncertainty by five-fold, improving the super-resolution information by more than ten-fold over other computational approaches. Moreover, rDL applied to LLSM enables self-supervised training by using the spatial or temporal continuity of noisy data itself, yielding results similar to those of supervised methods. We demonstrate the utility of rDL by imaging the rapid kinetics of motile cilia, nucleolar protein condensation during light-sensitive mitosis and long-term interactions between membranous and membrane-less organelles.

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10/05/22 | Not so spontaneous: Multi-dimensional representations of behaviors and context in sensory areas.
Avitan L, Stringer C
Neuron. 2022 Oct 05;110(19):3064. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2022.06.019

Sensory areas are spontaneously active in the absence of sensory stimuli. This spontaneous activity has long been studied; however, its functional role remains largely unknown. Recent advances in technology, allowing large-scale neural recordings in the awake and behaving animal, have transformed our understanding of spontaneous activity. Studies using these recordings have discovered high-dimensional spontaneous activity patterns, correlation between spontaneous activity and behavior, and dissimilarity between spontaneous and sensory-driven activity patterns. These findings are supported by evidence from developing animals, where a transition toward these characteristics is observed as the circuit matures, as well as by evidence from mature animals across species. These newly revealed characteristics call for the formulation of a new role for spontaneous activity in neural sensory computation.

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Svoboda Lab
10/04/22 | The Neurodata Without Borders ecosystem for neurophysiological data science.
Rubel O, Tritt A, Ly R, Dichter BK, Ghosh S, Niu L, Baker P, Soltesz I, Ng L, Svoboda K, Frank L, Bouchard KE
eLife. 2022 Oct 04;11:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.78362

The neurophysiology of cells and tissues are monitored electrophysiologically and optically in diverse experiments and species, ranging from flies to humans. Understanding the brain requires integration of data across this diversity, and thus these data must be findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR). This requires a standard language for data and metadata that can coevolve with neuroscience. We describe design and implementation principles for a language for neurophysiology data. Our open-source software (Neurodata Without Borders, NWB) defines and modularizes the interdependent, yet separable, components of a data language. We demonstrate NWB's impact through unified description of neurophysiology data across diverse modalities and species. NWB exists in an ecosystem, which includes data management, analysis, visualization, and archive tools. Thus, the NWB data language enables reproduction, interchange, and reuse of diverse neurophysiology data. More broadly, the design principles of NWB are generally applicable to enhance discovery across biology through data FAIRness.

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09/29/22 | De novo protein identification in mammalian sperm using high-resolution in situ cryo-electron tomography
Zhen Chen , Momoko Shiozaki , Kelsey M. Haas , Shumei Zhao , Caiying Guo , Benjamin J. Polacco , Zhiheng Yu , Nevan J. Krogan , Robyn M. Kaake , Ronald D. Vale , David A. Agard
bioRxiv. 2022 Sep 29:. doi: 10.1101/2022.09.28.510016

Understanding molecular mechanisms of cellular pathways requires knowledge of the identities of participating proteins, their cellular localization and their 3D structures. Contemporary workflows typically require multiple techniques to identify target proteins, track their localization using fluorescence microscopy, followed by in vitro structure determination. To identify mammal-specific sperm proteins and understand their functions, we developed a visual proteomics workflow to directly address these challenges. Our in situ cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging provided 6.0 Å resolution reconstructions of axonemal microtubules and their associated proteins. The well-resolved secondary and tertiary structures allowed us to computationally match, in an unbiased manner, novel densities in our 3D reconstruction maps with 21,615 AlphaFold2-predicted protein models of the mouse proteome. We identified Tektin 5, CCDC105 and SPACA9 as novel microtubule inner proteins that form an extensive network crosslinking the lumen of microtubule and existing proteins. Additional biochemical and mass spectrometry analyses helped validate potential candidates. The novel axonemal sperm structures identified by this approach form an extensive interaction network within the lumen of microtubules, suggesting they have a role in the mechanical and elastic properties of the microtubule filaments required for the vigorous beating motions of flagella.

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