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1391 Janelia Publications

Showing 61-70 of 1391 results
04/19/18 | Transvection Goes Live-Visualizing Enhancer-Promoter Communication between Chromosomes.
Tsai A, Singer RH, Crocker J
Molecular Cell. 2018 Apr 19;70(2):195-196. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2018.04.004

Lim et al. (2018) use live imaging in Drosophila embryos to show that enhancers can drive transcription from promoters on another chromosome when they are in close proximity. In addition, they show that multiple promoters can access the same enhancer without competition, potentially sharing a pool of factors in a transcriptional "hub."

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Gonen Lab
04/18/18 | Analysis of global and site-specific radiation damage in cryo-EM.
Hattne J, Shi D, Glynn C, Zee C, Gallagher-Jones M, Martynowycz MW, Rodriguez JA, Gonen T
Structure (London, England : 1993). 2018 Apr 18;26(5):759-66. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2018.03.021

Micro-crystal electron diffraction (MicroED) combines the efficiency of electron scattering with diffraction to allow structure determination from nano-sized crystalline samples in cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM). It has been used to solve structures of a diverse set of biomolecules and materials, in some cases to sub-atomic resolution. However, little is known about the damaging effects of the electron beam on samples during such measurements. We assess global and site-specific damage from electron radiation on nanocrystals of proteinase K and of a prion hepta-peptide and find that the dynamics of electron-induced damage follow well-established trends observed in X-ray crystallography. Metal ions are perturbed, disulfide bonds are broken, and acidic side chains are decarboxylated while the diffracted intensities decay exponentially with increasing exposure. A better understanding of radiation damage in MicroED improves our assessment and processing of all types of cryo-EM data.

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04/18/18 | Genetic dissection of neural circuits: a decade of progress
Luo L, Callaway EM, Svoboda K
Neuron. 2018 Apr 18;98(2):256-81. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.03.040

Tremendous progress has been made since Neuron published our Primer on genetic dissection of neural circuits 10 years ago. Since then, cell-type-specific anatomical, neurophysiological, and perturbation studies have been carried out in a multitude of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms, linking neurons and circuits to behavioral functions. New methods allow systematic classification of cell types and provide genetic access to diverse neuronal types for studies of connectivity and neural coding during behavior. Here we evaluate key advances over the past decade and discuss future directions.

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04/16/18 | Measuring the global substrate specificity of mycobacterial serine hydrolases using a library of fluorogenic ester substrates.
Bassett B, Waibel B, White A, Hansen H, Stephens D, Koelper A, Larsen EM, Kim C, Glanzer A, Lavis LD, Hoops GC, Johnson RJ
ACS Infectious Diseases. 2018 Apr 16:. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00263

Among the proteins required for lipid metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are a significant number of uncharacterized serine hydrolases, especially lipases and esterases. Using a streamlined synthetic method, a library of immolative fluorogenic ester substrates was expanded to better represent the natural lipidomic diversity of Mycobacterium. This expanded fluorogenic library was then used to rapidly characterize the global structure activity relationship (SAR) of mycobacterial serine hydrolases in M. smegmatis under different growth conditions. Confirmation of fluorogenic substrate activation by mycobacterial serine hydrolases was performed using nonspecific serine hydrolase inhibitors and reinforced the biological significance of the SAR. The hydrolases responsible for the global SAR were then assigned using gel-resolved activity measurements, and these assignments were used to rapidly identify the relative substrate specificity of previously uncharacterized mycobacterial hydrolases. These measurements provide a global SAR of mycobacterial hydrolase activity, a picture of cycling hydrolase activity, and a detailed substrate specificity profile for previously uncharacterized hydrolases.

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04/15/18 | Three-photon fluorescence microscopy with an axially elongated Bessel focus.
Rodriguez C, Liang Y, Lu R, Ji N
Optics Letters. 2018 Apr 15;43(8):1914-1917. doi: 10.1364/OL.43.001914

Volumetric imaging tools that are simple to adopt, flexible, and robust are in high demand in the field of neuroscience, where the ability to image neurons and their networks with high spatiotemporal resolution is essential. Using an axially elongated focus approximating a Bessel beam, in combination with two-photon fluorescence microscopy, has proven successful at such an endeavor. Here, we demonstrate three-photon fluorescence imaging with an axially extended Bessel focus. We use an axicon-based module that allowed for the generation of Bessel foci of varying numerical apertures and axial lengths, and apply this volumetric imaging tool to image mouse brain slices and for in vivo imaging of the mouse brain.

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04/10/18 | A community-developed Open-Source computational ecosystem for big neuro data.
Burns R, Perlman E, Baden A, Roncal WG, Falk B, Chandrashekhar V, Collman F, Seshamani S, Patsolic J, Lillaney K, Kazhdan M, Hider Jr. R, Pryor D, Matelsky J, Gion T, Manavalan P, Wester B, Chevillet M, Trautman ET, Khairy K
arXiv. 2018 Apr 10:1804.02835

Big imaging data is becoming more prominent in brain sciences across spatiotemporal scales and phylogenies. We have developed a computational ecosystem that enables storage, visualization, and analysis of these data in the cloud, thusfar spanning 20+ publications and 100+ terabytes including nanoscale ultrastructure, microscale synaptogenetic diversity, and mesoscale whole brain connectivity, making NeuroData the largest and most diverse open repository of brain data.

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04/10/18 | Structural mechanism of functional modulation by gene splicing in NMDA receptors.
Regan MC, Grant T, McDaniel MJ, Karakas E, Zhang J, Traynelis SF, Grigorieff N, Furukawa H
Neuron. 2018 Apr 10;98(3):521-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.03.034

Alternative gene splicing gives rise to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion channels with defined functional properties and unique contributions to calcium signaling in a given chemical environment in the mammalian brain. Splice variants possessing the exon-5-encoded motif at the amino-terminal domain (ATD) of the GluN1 subunit are known to display robustly altered deactivation rates and pH sensitivity, but the underlying mechanism for this functional modification is largely unknown. Here, we show through cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) that the presence of the exon 5 motif in GluN1 alters the local architecture of heterotetrameric GluN1-GluN2 NMDA receptors and creates contacts with the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of the GluN1 and GluN2 subunits, which are absent in NMDA receptors lacking the exon 5 motif. The unique interactions established by the exon 5 motif are essential to the stability of the ATD/LBD and LBD/LBD interfaces that are critically involved in controlling proton sensitivity and deactivation.

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04/09/18 | Odorant binding protein 69a connects social interaction to modulation of social responsiveness in Drosophila.
Bentzur A, Shmueli A, Omesi L, Ryvkin J, Knapp J, Parnas M, Davis FP, Shohat-Ophir G
PLoS Genetics. 2018 Apr 09;14(4):e1007328. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007328

Living in a social environment requires the ability to respond to specific social stimuli and to incorporate information obtained from prior interactions into future ones. One of the mechanisms that facilitates social interaction is pheromone-based communication. In Drosophila melanogaster, the male-specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) elicits different responses in male and female flies, and functions to modulate behavior in a context and experience-dependent manner. Although it is the most studied pheromone in flies, the mechanisms that determine the complexity of the response, its intensity and final output with respect to social context, sex and prior interaction, are still not well understood. Here we explored the functional link between social interaction and pheromone-based communication and discovered an odorant binding protein that links social interaction to sex specific changes in cVA related responses. Odorant binding protein 69a (Obp69a) is expressed in auxiliary cells and secreted into the olfactory sensilla. Its expression is inversely regulated in male and female flies by social interactions: cVA exposure reduces its levels in male flies and increases its levels in female flies. Increasing or decreasing Obp69a levels by genetic means establishes a functional link between Obp69a levels and the extent of male aggression and female receptivity. We show that activation of cVA-sensing neurons is sufficeint to regulate Obp69a levels in the absence of cVA, and requires active neurotransmission between the sensory neuron to the second order olfactory neuron. The cross-talk between sensory neurons and non-neuronal auxiliary cells at the olfactory sensilla, represents an additional component in the machinery that promotes behavioral plasticity to the same sensory stimuli in male and female flies.

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Riddiford LabTruman LabRubin Lab
04/04/18 | Juvenile hormone reveals mosaic developmental programs in the metamorphosing optic lobe of Drosophila melanogaster.
Riddiford LM, Truman JW, Nern A
Biology Open. 2018 Apr 04:. doi: 10.1242/bio.034025

The development of the adult optic lobe (OL) of is directed by a wave of ingrowth of the photoreceptors over a two day period at the outset of metamorphosis which is accompanied by the appearance of the pupal-specific transcription factor Broad-Z3 (Br-Z3) and expression of early drivers in OL neurons. During this time, there are pulses of ecdysteroids that time the metamorphic events. At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development. Axon ingrowth, Br-Z3 appearance and the expression of early drivers were unaffected, but aspects of later development such as the dendritic expansion of the lamina monopolar neurons and the expression of late drivers were suppressed. This effect of the exogenous JH mimic (JHM) pyriproxifen is lost by 24 hr after pupariation. Part of this effect of JHM is due to its suppression of the appearance of ecdysone receptor EcR-B1 that occurs after pupation and during early adult development.

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04/04/18 | Opportunities and obstacles for deep learning in biology and medicine.
Ching T, Himmelstein DS, Beaulieu-Jones BK, Kalinin AA, Do BT, Way GP, Ferrero E, Agapow P, Zietz M, Hoffman MM, Xie W, Rosen GL, Lengerich BJ, Israeli J, Lanchantin J, Woloszynek S, Carpenter AE, Shrikumar A, Xu J, Cofer EM
Journal of The Royal Society Interface. 2018 Apr 4:. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2017.0387

Deep learning describes a class of machine learning algorithms that are capable of combining raw inputs into layers of intermediate features. These algorithms have recently shown impressive results across a variety of domains. Biology and medicine are data-rich disciplines, but the data are complex and often ill-understood. Hence, deep learning techniques may be particularly well suited to solve problems of these fields. We examine applications of deep learning to a variety of biomedical problems—patient classification, fundamental biological processes and treatment of patients—and discuss whether deep learning will be able to transform these tasks or if the biomedical sphere poses unique challenges. Following from an extensive literature review, we find that deep learning has yet to revolutionize biomedicine or definitively resolve any of the most pressing challenges in the field, but promising advances have been made on the prior state of the art. Even though improvements over previous baselines have been modest in general, the recent progress indicates that deep learning methods will provide valuable means for speeding up or aiding human investigation. Though progress has been made linking a specific neural network's prediction to input features, understanding how users should interpret these models to make testable hypotheses about the system under study remains an open challenge. Furthermore, the limited amount of labelled data for training presents problems in some domains, as do legal and privacy constraints on work with sensitive health records. Nonetheless, we foresee deep learning enabling changes at both bench and bedside with the potential to transform several areas of biology and medicine.

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