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1702 Janelia Publications

Showing 61-70 of 1702 results
10/09/19 | Learning from action: reconsidering movement signaling in midbrain dopamine neuron activity.
Coddington LT, Dudman JT
Neuron. 2019 Oct 09;104(1):63-77. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.08.036

Animals infer when and where a reward is available from experience with informative sensory stimuli and their own actions. In vertebrates, this is thought to depend upon the release of dopamine from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Studies of the role of dopamine have focused almost exclusively on their encoding of informative sensory stimuli; however, many dopaminergic neurons are active just prior to movement initiation, even in the absence of sensory stimuli. How should current frameworks for understanding the role of dopamine incorporate these observations? To address this question, we review recent anatomical and functional evidence for action-related dopamine signaling. We conclude by proposing a framework in which dopaminergic neurons encode subjective signals of action initiation to solve an internal credit assignment problem.

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10/06/19 | Expansion microscopy: scalable and convenient super-resolution microscopy.
Tillberg PW, Chen F
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2019 Oct 6;35:683-701. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100818-125320

Expansion microscopy (ExM) is a physical form of magnification that increases the effective resolving power of any microscope. Here, we describe the fundamental principles of ExM, as well as how recently developed ExM variants build upon and apply those principles. We examine applications of ExM in cell and developmental biology for the study of nanoscale structures as well as ExM's potential for scalable mapping of nanoscale structures across large sample volumes. Finally, we explore how the unique anchoring and hydrogel embedding properties enable postexpansion molecular interrogation in a purified chemical environment. ExM promises to play an important role complementary to emerging live-cell imaging techniques, because of its relative ease of adoption and modification and its compatibility with tissue specimens up to at least 200 μm thick. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 35 is October 7, 2019. Please see for revised estimates.

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10/06/19 | The fly brain atlas.
Scheffer LK, Meinertzhagen IA
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2019 Oct 6;35:637-53. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100818-125444

The brain's synaptic networks endow an animal with powerfully adaptive biological behavior. Maps of such synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in those model brains, which can be examined and manipulated by genetic means, offer the best prospect for understanding the underlying biological bases of behavior. That prospect is now technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as genomics has been in molecular biology and genetics. In , two major advances are in electron microscopic technology, using focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) milling to capture and align digital images, and in computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies. The last decade has witnessed enormous progress in detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons. Advances in various brain regions that heralded identification of the motion-sensing circuits in the optic lobe are now extending to other brain regions, with the prospect of encompassing the fly's entire nervous system, both brain and ventral nerve cord. Expected final online publication date for the Volume 35 is October 7, 2019. Please see for revised estimates.

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10/06/19 | Light-sheet microscopy and its potential for understanding developmental processes.
Wan Y, McDole K, Keller PJ
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2019 Oct 6;35:655-81. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100818-125311

The ability to visualize and quantitatively measure dynamic biological processes in vivo and at high spatiotemporal resolution is of fundamental importance to experimental investigations in developmental biology. Light-sheet microscopy is particularly well suited to providing such data, since it offers exceptionally high imaging speed and good spatial resolution while minimizing light-induced damage to the specimen. We review core principles and recent advances in light-sheet microscopy, with a focus on concepts and implementations relevant for applications in developmental biology. We discuss how light-sheet microcopy has helped advance our understanding of developmental processes from single-molecule to whole-organism studies, assess the potential for synergies with other state-of-the-art technologies, and introduce methods for computational image and data analysis. Finally, we explore the future trajectory of light-sheet microscopy, discuss key efforts to disseminate new light-sheet technology, and identify exciting opportunities for further advances.

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10/01/19 | Genetic dissection of active forgetting in labile and consolidated memories in Drosophila.
Gao Y, Shuai Y, Zhang X, Peng Y, Wang L, He J, Zhong Y, Li Q
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2019 Oct 01;116(42):21191-97. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1903763116

Different memory components are forgotten through distinct molecular mechanisms. In , the activation of 2 Rho GTPases (Rac1 and Cdc42), respectively, underlies the forgetting of an early labile memory (anesthesia-sensitive memory, ASM) and a form of consolidated memory (anesthesia-resistant memory, ARM). Here, we dissected the molecular mechanisms that tie Rac1 and Cdc42 to the different types of memory forgetting. We found that 2 WASP family proteins, SCAR/WAVE and WASp, act downstream of Rac1 and Cdc42 separately to regulate ASM and ARM forgetting in mushroom body neurons. Arp2/3 complex, which organizes branched actin polymerization, is a canonical downstream effector of WASP family proteins. However, we found that Arp2/3 complex is required in Cdc42/WASp-mediated ARM forgetting but not in Rac1/SCAR-mediated ASM forgetting. Instead, we identified that Rac1/SCAR may function with formin Diaphanous (Dia), a nucleator that facilitates linear actin polymerization, in ASM forgetting. The present study, complementing the previously identified Rac1/cofilin pathway that regulates actin depolymerization, suggests that Rho GTPases regulate forgetting by recruiting both actin polymerization and depolymerization pathways. Moreover, Rac1 and Cdc42 may regulate different types of memory forgetting by tapping into different actin polymerization mechanisms.

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09/30/19 | ilastik: interactive machine learning for (bio)image analysis.
Berg S, Kutra D, Kroeger T, Straehle CN, Kausler BX, Haubold C, Schiegg M, Ales J, Beier T, Rudy M, Eren K, Cervantes JI, Xu B, Beuttenmueller F, Wolny A, Zhang C, Koethe U, Hamprecht FA, Kreshuk A
Nature Methods. 2019 Sep 30:. doi: 10.1038/s41592-019-0582-9

We present ilastik, an easy-to-use interactive tool that brings machine-learning-based (bio)image analysis to end users without substantial computational expertise. It contains pre-defined workflows for image segmentation, object classification, counting and tracking. Users adapt the workflows to the problem at hand by interactively providing sparse training annotations for a nonlinear classifier. ilastik can process data in up to five dimensions (3D, time and number of channels). Its computational back end runs operations on-demand wherever possible, allowing for interactive prediction on data larger than RAM. Once the classifiers are trained, ilastik workflows can be applied to new data from the command line without further user interaction. We describe all ilastik workflows in detail, including three case studies and a discussion on the expected performance.

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09/30/19 | Histone H3K27 acetylation precedes active transcription during zebrafish zygotic genome activation as revealed by live-cell analysis.
Sato Y, Hilbert L, Oda H, Wan Y, Heddleston JM, Chew T, Zaburdaev V, Keller P, Lionnet T, Vastenhouw N, Kimura H
Development. 2019 Sep 30;146(19):. doi: 10.1242/dev.179127

Histone post-translational modifications are key gene expression regulators, but their rapid dynamics during development remain difficult to capture. We applied a Fab-based live endogenous modification labeling technique to monitor the changes in histone modification levels during zygotic genome activation (ZGA) in living zebrafish embryos. Among various histone modifications, H3 Lys27 acetylation (H3K27ac) exhibited most drastic changes, accumulating in two nuclear foci in the 64- to 1k-cell-stage embryos. The elongating form of RNA polymerase II, which is phosphorylated at Ser2 in heptad repeats within the C-terminal domain (RNAP2 Ser2ph), and miR-430 transcripts were also concentrated in foci closely associated with H3K27ac. When treated with α-amanitin to inhibit transcription or JQ-1 to inhibit binding of acetyl-reader proteins, H3K27ac foci still appeared but RNAP2 Ser2ph and miR-430 morpholino were not concentrated in foci, suggesting that H3K27ac precedes active transcription during ZGA. We anticipate that the method presented here could be applied to a variety of developmental processes in any model and non-model organisms.

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09/25/19 | Can one concurrently record electrical spikes from every neuron in a mammalian brain?
Kleinfeld D, Luan L, Mitra PP, Robinson JT, Sarpeshkar R, Shepard K, Xie C, Harris TD
Neuron. 2019 Sep 25;103(6):1005. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.08.011

The classic approach to measure the spiking response of neurons involves the use of metal electrodes to record extracellular potentials. Starting over 60 years ago with a single recording site, this technology now extends to ever larger numbers and densities of sites. We argue, based on the mechanical and electrical properties of existing materials, estimates of signal-to-noise ratios, assumptions regarding extracellular space in the brain, and estimates of heat generation by the electronic interface, that it should be possible to fabricate rigid electrodes to concurrently record from essentially every neuron in the cortical mantle. This will involve fabrication with existing yet nontraditional materials and procedures. We further emphasize the need to advance materials for improved flexible electrodes as an essential advance to record from neurons in brainstem and spinal cord in moving animals.

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09/25/19 | Rational design of fluorogenic and spontaneously blinking labels for super-resolution imaging.
Zheng Q, Ayala AX, Chung I, Weigel AV, Ranjan A, Falco N, Grimm JB, Tkachuk AN, Wu C, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Singer RH, Lavis LD
ACS Central Science. 2019 Sep 25;5(9):1602-1613. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.9b00676

Rhodamine dyes exist in equilibrium between a fluorescent zwitterion and a nonfluorescent lactone. Tuning this equilibrium toward the nonfluorescent lactone form can improve cell-permeability and allow creation of "fluorogenic" compounds-ligands that shift to the fluorescent zwitterion upon binding a biomolecular target. An archetype fluorogenic dye is the far-red tetramethyl-Si-rhodamine (SiR), which has been used to create exceptionally useful labels for advanced microscopy. Here, we develop a quantitative framework for the development of new fluorogenic dyes, determining that the lactone-zwitterion equilibrium constant () is sufficient to predict fluorogenicity. This rubric emerged from our analysis of known fluorophores and yielded new fluorescent and fluorogenic labels with improved performance in cellular imaging experiments. We then designed a novel fluorophore-Janelia Fluor 526 (JF)-with SiR-like properties but shorter fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths. JF is a versatile scaffold for fluorogenic probes including ligands for self-labeling tags, stains for endogenous structures, and spontaneously blinking labels for super-resolution immunofluorescence. JF constitutes a new label for advanced microscopy experiments, and our quantitative framework will enable the rational design of other fluorogenic probes for bioimaging.

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09/23/19 | Mamo decodes hierarchical temporal gradients into terminal neuronal fate.
Liu L, Long X, Yang C, Miyares RL, Sugino K, Singer RH, Lee T
Elife. 2019 Sep 23;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.48056

Temporal patterning is a seminal method of expanding neuronal diversity. Here we unravel a mechanism decoding neural stem cell temporal gene expression and transforming it into discrete neuronal fates. This mechanism is characterized by hierarchical gene expression. First, neuroblasts express opposing temporal gradients of RNA-binding proteins, Imp and Syp. These proteins promote or inhibit translation, yielding a descending neuronal gradient. Together, first and second-layer temporal factors define a temporal expression window of BTB-zinc finger nuclear protein, Mamo. The precise temporal induction of Mamo is achieved via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Finally, Mamo is essential for the temporally defined, terminal identity of α'/β' mushroom body neurons and identity maintenance. We describe a straightforward paradigm of temporal fate specification where diverse neuronal fates are defined via integrating multiple layers of gene regulation. The neurodevelopmental roles of orthologous/related mammalian genes suggest a fundamental conservation of this mechanism in brain development.

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