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1817 Janelia Publications

Showing 61-70 of 1817 results
05/06/20 | Whole-brain profiling of cells and circuits in mammals by tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy.
Ueda HR, Dodt H, Osten P, Economo MN, Chandrashekar J, Keller PJ
Neuron. 2020 May 06;106(3):369-387. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.03.004

Tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy have a 100-year-plus history, yet these fields have been combined only recently to facilitate novel experiments and measurements in neuroscience. Since tissue-clearing methods were first combined with modernized light-sheet microscopy a decade ago, the performance of both technologies has rapidly improved, broadening their applications. Here, we review the state of the art of tissue-clearing methods and light-sheet microscopy and discuss applications of these techniques in profiling cells and circuits in mice. We examine outstanding challenges and future opportunities for expanding these techniques to achieve brain-wide profiling of cells and circuits in primates and humans. Such integration will help provide a systems-level understanding of the physiology and pathology of our central nervous system.

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06/25/20 | Controlling motor neurons of every muscle for fly proboscis reaching.
McKellar CE, Siwanowicz I, Dickson BJ, Simpson JH
eLife. 2020 Jun 25;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.54978

We describe the anatomy of all the primary motor neurons in the fly proboscis and characterize their contributions to its diverse reaching movements. Pairing this behavior with the wealth of genetic tools offers the possibility to study motor control at single-neuron resolution, and soon throughout entire circuits. As an entry to these circuits, we provide detailed anatomy of proboscis motor neurons, muscles, and joints. We create a collection of fly strains to individually manipulate every proboscis muscle through control of its motor neurons, the first such collection for an appendage. We generate a model of the action of each proboscis joint, and find that only a small number of motor neurons are needed to produce proboscis reaching. Comprehensive control of each motor element in this numerically simple system paves the way for future study of both reflexive and flexible movements of this appendage.

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06/23/20 | Employing NaChBac for cryo-EM analysis of toxin action on voltage-gated Na+ channels in nanodisc
Gao S, Valinsky WC, On NC, Houlihan PR, Qu Q, Liu L, Pan X, Clapham DE, Yan N
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.. 2020 Jun 23;117(25):14187-93. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1922903117

NaChBac, the first bacterial voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channel to be characterized, has been the prokaryotic prototype for studying the structure–function relationship of Nav channels. Discovered nearly two decades ago, the structure of NaChBac has not been determined. Here we present the single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of NaChBac in both detergent micelles and nanodiscs. Under both conditions, the conformation of NaChBac is nearly identical to that of the potentially inactivated NavAb. Determining the structure of NaChBac in nanodiscs enabled us to examine gating modifier toxins (GMTs) of Nav channels in lipid bilayers. To study GMTs in mammalian Nav channels, we generated a chimera in which the extracellular fragment of the S3 and S4 segments in the second voltage-sensing domain from Nav1.7 replaced the corresponding sequence in NaChBac. Cryo-EM structures of the nanodisc-embedded chimera alone and in complex with HuwenToxin IV (HWTX-IV) were determined to 3.5 and 3.2 Å resolutions, respectively. Compared to the structure of HWTX-IV–bound human Nav1.7, which was obtained at an overall resolution of 3.2 Å, the local resolution of the toxin has been improved from ∼6 to ∼4 Å. This resolution enabled visualization of toxin docking. NaChBac can thus serve as a convenient surrogate for structural studies of the interactions between GMTs and Nav channels in a membrane environment.

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06/22/20 | A neural representation of naturalistic motion-guided behavior in the zebrafish brain.
Yildizoglu T, Riegler C, Fitzgerald JE, Portugues R
Current Biology. 2020 Jun 22;30(12):2321-33. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.043

All animals must transform ambiguous sensory data into successful behavior. This requires sensory representations that accurately reflect the statistics of natural stimuli and behavior. Multiple studies show that visual motion processing is tuned for accuracy under naturalistic conditions, but the sensorimotor circuits extracting these cues and implementing motion-guided behavior remain unclear. Here we show that the larval zebrafish retina extracts a diversity of naturalistic motion cues, and the retinorecipient pretectum organizes these cues around the elements of behavior. We find that higher-order motion stimuli, gliders, induce optomotor behavior matching expectations from natural scene analyses. We then image activity of retinal ganglion cell terminals and pretectal neurons. The retina exhibits direction-selective responses across glider stimuli, and anatomically clustered pretectal neurons respond with magnitudes matching behavior. Peripheral computations thus reflect natural input statistics, whereas central brain activity precisely codes information needed for behavior. This general principle could organize sensorimotor transformations across animal species.

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06/17/20 | Genome-wide kinetic properties of transcriptional bursting in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Ochiai H, Hayashi T, Umeda M, Yoshimura M, Harada A, Shimizu Y, Nakano K, Saitoh N, Liu Z, Yamamoto T, Okamura T, Ohkawa Y, Kimura H, Nikaido I
Science Advances. 2020 Jun 17;6(25):eaaz6699. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz6699

Transcriptional bursting is the stochastic activation and inactivation of promoters, contributing to cell-to-cell heterogeneity in gene expression. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of transcriptional bursting kinetics (burst size and frequency) in mammalian cells remains elusive. In this study, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze the intrinsic noise and mRNA levels for elucidating the transcriptional bursting kinetics in mouse embryonic stem cells. Informatics analyses and functional assays revealed that transcriptional bursting kinetics was regulated by a combination of promoter- and gene body-binding proteins, including the polycomb repressive complex 2 and transcription elongation factors. Furthermore, large-scale CRISPR-Cas9-based screening identified that the Akt/MAPK signaling pathway regulated bursting kinetics by modulating transcription elongation efficiency. These results uncovered the key molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional bursting and cell-to-cell gene expression noise in mammalian cells.

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06/17/20 | Mechanisms of procollagen and HSP47 sorting during ER-to-Golgi trafficking
Omari S, Makareeva E, Gorrell L, Jarnik M, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S
Matrix Biology. 2020 Jun 17:. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2020.06.002

Efficient quality control and export of procollagen from the cell is crucial for extracellular matrix homeostasis, yet it is still incompletely understood. One of the debated questions is the role of a collagen-specific ER chaperone HSP47 in these processes. Most ER chaperones preferentially bind to unfolded polypeptide chains, enabling selective export of natively folded proteins from the ER after chaperone release. In contrast, HSP47 preferentially binds to the natively folded procollagen and is believed to be released only in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi. HSP47 colocalization with procollagen in punctate structures observed by immunofluorescence imaging of fixed cells has thus been interpreted as evidence for HSP47 export from the ER together with procollagen in transport vesicles destined for ERGIC or Golgi. To understand the mechanism of this co-trafficking and its physiological significance, we imaged the dynamics of fluorescently tagged type I procollagen and HSP47 punctate structures in live MC3T3 murine osteoblasts with up to 120 nm spatial and 500 ms time resolution. Contrary to the prevailing model, we discovered that most bona fide carriers delivering procollagen from ER exit sites (ERESs) to Golgi contained no HSP47, unless the RDEL signal for ER retention in HSP47 was deleted or mutated. These transport intermediates exhibited characteristic rapid, directional motion along microtubules, while puncta with colocalized HSP47 and procollagen similar to the ones described before had only limited, stochastic motion. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the latter puncta (including the ones induced by ARF1 inhibition) were dilated regions of ER lumen, ERESs, or autophagic structures surrounded by lysosomal membranes. Procollagen was colocalized with HSP47 and ERGIC53 at ERESs. It was colocalized with ERGIC53 but not HSP47 in Golgi-bound transport intermediates. Our results suggest that procollagen and HSP47 sorting occurs at ERES before procollagen is exported from the ER in Golgi-bound transport intermediates, providing new insights into mechanisms of procollagen trafficking.

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06/16/20 | Comprehensive imaging of sensory-evoked activity of entire neurons within the awake developing brain using ultrafast AOD-based random-access two-photon microscopy.
Sakaki KD, Podgorski K, Dellazizzo Toth TA, Coleman P, Haas K
Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 2020 Jun 16;14:33. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2020.00033

Determining how neurons transform synaptic input and encode information in action potential (AP) firing output is required for understanding dendritic integration, neural transforms and encoding. Limitations in the speed of imaging 3D volumes of brain encompassing complex dendritic arbors using conventional galvanometer mirror-based laser-scanning microscopy has hampered fully capturing fluorescent sensors of activity throughout an individual neuron's entire complement of synaptic inputs and somatic APs. To address this problem, we have developed a two-photon microscope that achieves high-speed scanning by employing inertia-free acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) for laser beam positioning, enabling random-access sampling of hundreds to thousands of points-of-interest restricted to a predetermined neuronal structure, avoiding wasted scanning of surrounding extracellular tissue. This system is capable of comprehensive imaging of the activity of single neurons within the intact and awake vertebrate brain. Here, we demonstrate imaging of tectal neurons within the brains of albino tadpoles labeled using single-cell electroporation for expression of a red space-filling fluorophore to determine dendritic arbor morphology, and either the calcium sensor jGCaMP7s or the glutamate sensor iGluSnFR as indicators of neural activity. Using discrete, point-of-interest scanning we achieve sampling rates of 3 Hz for saturation sampling of entire arbors at 2 μm resolution, 6 Hz for sequentially sampling 3 volumes encompassing the dendritic arbor and soma, and 200-250 Hz for scanning individual planes through the dendritic arbor. This system allows investigations of sensory-evoked information input-output relationships of neurons within the intact and awake brain.

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Cardona Lab
06/08/20 | The corazonin-PTTH neuronal axis controls systemic body growth by regulating basal ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster.
Imura E, Shimada-Niwa Y, Nishimura T, Hückesfeld S, Schlegel P, Ohhara Y, Kondo S, Tanimoto H, Cardona A, Pankratz MJ, Niwa R
Current Biology. 2020 Jun 8;30(11):2156-65. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.050

Steroid hormones play key roles in development, growth, and reproduction in various animal phyla [1]. The insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, coordinates growth and maturation, represented by molting and metamorphosis [2]. In Drosophila melanogaster, the prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-producing neurons stimulate peak levels of ecdysteroid biosynthesis for maturation [3]. Additionally, recent studies on PTTH signaling indicated that basal levels of ecdysteroid negatively affect systemic growth prior to maturation [4-8]. However, it remains unclear how PTTH signaling is regulated for basal ecdysteroid biosynthesis. Here, we report that Corazonin (Crz)-producing neurons regulate basal ecdysteroid biosynthesis by affecting PTTH neurons. Crz belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) superfamily, implying an analogous role in growth and maturation [9]. Inhibition of Crz neuronal activity increased pupal size, whereas it hardly affected pupariation timing. This phenotype resulted from enhanced growth rate and a delay in ecdysteroid elevation during the mid-third instar larval (L3) stage. Interestingly, Crz receptor (CrzR) expression in PTTH neurons was higher during the mid- than the late-L3 stage. Silencing of CrzR in PTTH neurons increased pupal size, phenocopying the inhibition of Crz neuronal activity. When Crz neurons were optogenetically activated, a strong calcium response was observed in PTTH neurons during the mid-L3, but not the late-L3, stage. Furthermore, we found that octopamine neurons contact Crz neurons in the subesophageal zone (SEZ), transmitting signals for systemic growth. Together, our results suggest that the Crz-PTTH neuronal axis modulates ecdysteroid biosynthesis in response to octopamine, uncovering a regulatory neuroendocrine system in the developmental transition from growth to maturation.

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06/04/20 | First occurrence of the pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the Comoros Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean)
Hassani I, Behrman E, Prigent S, Gidaszewski N, Ravaomanarivo LR, Suwalski A, Debat V, David J, Yassin A
African Entomology. 2020 Jun 04;28(1):78. doi: 10.4001/003.028.0078

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an Asian pest of grapes and other soft fruits that has invaded North America and Europe during the last decade. Here we report its recent occurrence on two islands of the Comoros archipelago in the Mozambique Channel, namely Mayotte and Ngazidja (Grande Comore), in April 2017 and November 2018, respectively. We also document its absence from other African islands in the Mozambique Channel and the Western Indian Ocean including Mayotte until 2013. Drosophila ashburneriTsacas, 1984 is the only member of the suzukii species subgroup known from the Comoros, but it is morphologically distinct and likely distantly related to DsuzukiiDrosophila suzukii has likely been recently introduced to the Comoros archipelago, perhaps from La Réunion island where it first appeared in November 2013. On all of these tropical islands, Dsuzukii was found in high-altitude habitats in agreement with its adaptation to cold environments. These results suggest the high susceptibility of highlands in eastern and southern Africa to be infested by this pest in the near future.

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06/02/20 | Chloroplast Sec14-like 1 (CPSFL1) is essential for normal chloroplast development and affects carotenoid accumulation in Chlamydomonas.
García-Cerdán JG, Schmid EM, Takeuchi T, McRae I, McDonald KL, Yordduangjun N, Hassan AM, Grob P, Xu CS, Hess HF, Fletcher DA, Nogales E, Niyogi KK
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U S A. 2020 Jun 2;117(22):1-12. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1916948117

Plastid isoprenoid-derived carotenoids serve essential roles in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Although nearly all enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in plants have been identified, the complement of auxiliary proteins that regulate synthesis, transport, sequestration, and degradation of these molecules and their isoprenoid precursors have not been fully described. To identify such proteins that are necessary for the optimal functioning of oxygenic photosynthesis, we screened a large collection of nonphotosynthetic (acetate-requiring) DNA insertional mutants of and isolated The mutant is extremely light-sensitive and susceptible to photoinhibition and photobleaching. The gene encodes a CRAL-TRIO hydrophobic ligand-binding (Sec14) domain protein. Proteins containing this domain are limited to eukaryotes, but some may have been retargeted to function in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. The mutant showed decreased accumulation of plastidial isoprenoid-derived pigments, especially carotenoids, and whole-cell focused ion-beam scanning-electron microscopy revealed a deficiency of carotenoid-rich chloroplast structures (e.g., eyespot and plastoglobules). The low carotenoid content resulted from impaired biosynthesis at a step prior to phytoene, the committed precursor to carotenoids. The CPSFL1 protein bound phytoene and β-carotene when expressed in and phosphatidic acid in vitro. We suggest that CPSFL1 is involved in the regulation of phytoene synthesis and carotenoid transport and thereby modulates carotenoid accumulation in the chloroplast.

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