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2127 Janelia Publications

Showing 61-70 of 2127 results
03/11/22 | Motor cortical output for skilled forelimb movement is selectively distributed across projection neuron classes.
Park J, Phillips JW, Guo J, Martin KA, Hantman AW, Dudman JT
Science Advances. 2022 Mar 11;8(10):eabj5167. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abj5167

The interaction of descending neocortical outputs and subcortical premotor circuits is critical for shaping skilled movements. Two broad classes of motor cortical output projection neurons provide input to many subcortical motor areas: pyramidal tract (PT) neurons, which project throughout the neuraxis, and intratelencephalic (IT) neurons, which project within the cortex and subcortical striatum. It is unclear whether these classes are functionally in series or whether each class carries distinct components of descending motor control signals. Here, we combine large-scale neural recordings across all layers of motor cortex with cell type-specific perturbations to study cortically dependent mouse motor behaviors: kinematically variable manipulation of a joystick and a kinematically precise reach-to-grasp. We find that striatum-projecting IT neuron activity preferentially represents amplitude, whereas pons-projecting PT neurons preferentially represent the variable direction of forelimb movements. Thus, separable components of descending motor cortical commands are distributed across motor cortical projection cell classes.

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03/09/22 | Regulation of liver subcellular architecture controls metabolic homeostasis.
Parlakgül G, Arruda AP, Pang S, Cagampan E, Min N, Güney E, Lee GY, Inouye K, Hess HF, Xu CS, Hotamışlıgil GS
Nature. 2022 Mar 09;603(7902):736-742. doi: 10.1038/s41586-022-04488-5

Cells display complex intracellular organization by compartmentalization of metabolic processes into organelles, yet the resolution of these structures in the native tissue context and their functional consequences are not well understood. Here we resolved the three-dimensional structural organization of organelles in large (more than 2.8 × 10 µm) volumes of intact liver tissue (15 partial or full hepatocytes per condition) at high resolution (8 nm isotropic pixel size) using enhanced focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy imaging followed by deep-learning-based automated image segmentation and 3D reconstruction. We also performed a comparative analysis of subcellular structures in liver tissue of lean and obese mice and found substantial alterations, particularly in hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which undergoes massive structural reorganization characterized by marked disorganization of stacks of ER sheets and predominance of ER tubules. Finally, we demonstrated the functional importance of these structural changes by monitoring the effects of experimental recovery of the subcellular organization on cellular and systemic metabolism. We conclude that the hepatic subcellular organization of the ER architecture are highly dynamic, integrated with the metabolic state and critical for adaptive homeostasis and tissue health.

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03/07/22 | Neuromuscular embodiment of feedback control elements in Drosophila flight
Samuel C. Whitehead , Sofia Leone , Theodore Lindsay , Matthew Meiselman , Noah Cowan , Michael Dickinson , Nilay Yapici , David Stern , Troy Shirangi , Itai Cohen
bioRxiv. 2022 Mar 07:. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.22.481344

While insects like Drosophila are flying, aerodynamic instabilities require that they make millisecond-timescale adjustments to their wing motion to stay aloft and on course. These stabilization reflexes can be modeled as a proportional-integral (PI) controller; however, it is unclear how such control might be instantiated in insects at the level of muscles and neurons. Here, we show that the b1 and b2 motor units—prominent components of the fly’s steering muscles system—modulate specific elements of the PI controller: the angular displacement (integral, I) and angular velocity (proportional, P), respectively. Moreover, these effects are observed only during the stabilization of pitch. Our results provide evidence for an organizational principle in which each muscle contributes to a specific functional role in flight control, a finding that highlights the power of using top-down behavioral modeling to guide bottom-up cellular manipulation studies.

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03/07/22 | Taste quality interactions and transformations in a sensorimotor circuit
Philip K. Shiu , Gabriella R. Sterne , Stefanie Engert , Barry J. Dickson , Kristin Scott
bioRxiv. 2022 Mar 07:. doi: 10.1101/2022.03.06.483180

Taste detection and hunger state dynamically regulate the decision to initiate feeding. To study how context-appropriate feeding decisions are generated, we combined synaptic resolution circuit reconstruction with targeted genetic access to specific neurons to elucidate a gustatory sensorimotor circuit for feeding initiation in Drosophila melanogaster. This circuit connects gustatory sensory neurons to proboscis motor neurons through three intermediate layers. Most of the neurons in this pathway are necessary and sufficient for proboscis extension, a feeding initiation behavior, and respond selectively to sugar taste detection. Hunger signals act at select second-order neurons to increase feeding initiation in food-deprived animals. In contrast, a bitter taste pathway inhibits premotor neurons, illuminating a central mechanism that weighs sugar and bitter tastes to promote or inhibit feeding. Together, these studies reveal the neural circuit basis for the integration of external taste detection and internal nutritive state to flexibly execute a critical feeding decision.

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03/03/22 | The Consistency of Gastropod Identified Neurons Distinguishes Intra-Individual Plasticity From Inter-Individual Variability in Neural Circuits.
Tamvacakis AN, Lillvis JL, Sakurai A, Katz PS
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2022 Mar 03;16:855235. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2022.855235

Gastropod mollusks are known for their large, individually identifiable neurons, which are amenable to long-term intracellular recordings that can be repeated from animal to animal. The constancy of individual neurons can help distinguish state-dependent or temporal variation within an individual from actual variability between individual animals. Investigations into the circuitry underlying rhythmic swimming movements of the gastropod species, and have uncovered intra- and inter-individual variability in synaptic connectivity and serotonergic neuromodulation. has a reliably evoked escape swim behavior that is produced by a central pattern generator (CPG) composed of a small number of identifiable neurons. There is apparent individual variability in some of the connections between neurons that is inconsequential for the production of the swim behavior under normal conditions, but determines whether that individual can swim following a neural lesion. Serotonergic neuromodulation of synaptic strength intrinsic to the CPG creates neural circuit plasticity within an individual and contributes to reorganization of the network during recovery from injury and during learning. In , variability over time in the modulatory actions of serotonin and in expression of serotonin receptor genes in an identified neuron directly reflects variation in swimming behavior. Tracking behavior and electrophysiology over hours to days was necessary to identify the functional consequences of these intra-individual, time-dependent variations. This work demonstrates the importance of unambiguous neuron identification, properly assessing the animal and network states, and tracking behavior and physiology over time to distinguish plasticity within the same animal at different times from variability across individual animals.

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02/28/22 | Melding Synthetic Molecules and Genetically Encoded Proteins to Forge New Tools for Neuroscience.
Kumar P, Lavis LD
Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2022 Feb 28:. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-110520-030031

Unraveling the complexity of the brain requires sophisticated methods to probe and perturb neurobiological processes with high spatiotemporal control. The field of chemical biology has produced general strategies to combine the molecular specificity of small-molecule tools with the cellular specificity of genetically encoded reagents. Here, we survey the application, refinement, and extension of these hybrid small-molecule:protein methods to problems in neuroscience, which yields powerful reagents to precisely measure and manipulate neural systems. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 45 is July 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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02/28/22 | Melding Synthetic Molecules and Genetically Encoded Proteins to Forge New Tools for Neuroscience.
Kumar P, Lavis LD
Annual Review Neuroscience. 2022 Feb 28:. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-110520-030031

Unraveling the complexity of the brain requires sophisticated methods to probe and perturb neurobiological processes with high spatiotemporal control. The field of chemical biology has produced general strategies to combine the molecular specificity of small-molecule tools with the cellular specificity of genetically encoded reagents. Here, we survey the application, refinement, and extension of these hybrid small-molecule:protein methods to problems in neuroscience, which yields powerful reagents to precisely measure and manipulate neural systems. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 45 is July 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

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02/25/22 | Online learning for orientation estimation during translation in an insect ring attractor network.
Robinson BS, Norman-Tenazas R, Cervantes M, Symonette D, Johnson EC, Joyce J, Rivlin PK, Hwang G, Zhang K, Gray-Roncal W
Scientific Reports. 2022 Feb 25;12(1):3210. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-05798-4

Insect neural systems are a promising source of inspiration for new navigation algorithms, especially on low size, weight, and power platforms. There have been unprecedented recent neuroscience breakthroughs with Drosophila in behavioral and neural imaging experiments as well as the mapping of detailed connectivity of neural structures. General mechanisms for learning orientation in the central complex (CX) of Drosophila have been investigated previously; however, it is unclear how these underlying mechanisms extend to cases where there is translation through an environment (beyond only rotation), which is critical for navigation in robotic systems. Here, we develop a CX neural connectivity-constrained model that performs sensor fusion, as well as unsupervised learning of visual features for path integration; we demonstrate the viability of this circuit for use in robotic systems in simulated and physical environments. Furthermore, we propose a theoretical understanding of how distributed online unsupervised network weight modification can be leveraged for learning in a trajectory through an environment by minimizing orientation estimation error. Overall, our results may enable a new class of CX-derived low power robotic navigation algorithms and lead to testable predictions to inform future neuroscience experiments.

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02/24/22 | Neuromuscular embodiment of feedback control elements in Drosophila flight.
Samuel C Whitehead , Sofia Leone , Theodore Lindsay , Matthew R Meiselman , Noah Cowan , Michael H Dickinson , Nilay Yapici , David Stern , Troy Shirangi , Itai Cohen
bioRxiv. 2022 Feb 24:. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.22.481344

While insects like Drosophila are flying, aerodynamic instabilities require that they make millisecond-timescale adjustments to their wing motion to stay aloft and on course. These stabilization reflexes can be modeled as a proportional-integral (PI) controller; however, it is unclear how such control might be instantiated in insects at the level of muscles and neurons. Here, we show that the b1 and b2 motor units—prominent components of the fly's steering muscles system—modulate specific elements of the PI controller: the angular displacement (integral, I) and angular velocity (proportional, P), respectively. Moreover, these effects are observed only during the stabilization of pitch. Our results provide evidence for an organizational principle in which each muscle contributes to a specific functional role in flight control, a finding that highlights the power of using top-down behavioral modeling to guide bottom-up cellular manipulation studies.

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02/23/22 | The importance of accounting for movement when relating neuronal activity to sensory and cognitive processes.
Edward Zagha , Jeffrey C Erlich , Soohyun Lee , Gyorgy Lur , Daniel H O'Connor , Nicholas A Steinmetz , Carsen Stringer , Hongdian Yang
Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2022 Feb 23;42(8):1375-1382. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1919-21.2021

A surprising finding of recent studies in mouse is the dominance of widespread movement-related activity throughout the brain, including in early sensory areas. In awake subjects, failing to account for movement risks misattributing movement-related activity to other (e.g., sensory or cognitive) processes. In this article, we 1) review task designs for separating task-related and movement-related activity, 2) review three 'case studies' in which not considering movement would have resulted in critically different interpretations of neuronal function, and 3) discuss functional couplings that may prevent us from ever fully isolating sensory, motor, and cognitive-related activity. Our main thesis is that neural signals related to movement are ubiquitous, and therefore ought to be considered first and foremost when attempting to correlate neuronal activity with task-related processes.

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