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1960 Janelia Publications

Showing 61-70 of 1960 results
06/27/19 | Teaching deep neural networks to localize single molecules for super-resolution microscopy
Artur Speiser , Lucas-Raphael Müller , Ulf Matti , Christopher J. Obara , Wesley R. Legant , Jonas Ries , Jakob H. Macke , Srinivas C. Turaga

Single-molecule localization fluorescence microscopy constructs super-resolution images by sequential imaging and computational localization of sparsely activated fluorophores. Accurate and efficient fluorophore localization algorithms are key to the success of this computational microscopy method. We present a novel localization algorithm based on deep learning which significantly improves upon the state of the art. Our contributions are a novel network architecture for simultaneous detection and localization, and new loss function which phrases detection and localization as a Bayesian inference problem, and thus allows the network to provide uncertainty-estimates. In contrast to standard methods which independently process imaging frames, our network architecture uses temporal context from multiple sequentially imaged frames to detect and localize molecules. We demonstrate the power of our method across a variety of datasets, imaging modalities, signal to noise ratios, and fluorophore densities. While existing localization algorithms can achieve optimal localization accuracy at low fluorophore densities, they are confounded by high densities. Our method is the first deep-learning based approach which achieves state-of-the-art on the SMLM2016 challenge. It achieves the best scores on 12 out of 12 data-sets when comparing both detection accuracy and precision, and excels at high densities. Finally, we investigate how unsupervised learning can be used to make the network robust against mismatch between simulated and real data. The lessons learned here are more generally relevant for the training of deep networks to solve challenging Bayesian inverse problems on spatially extended domains in biology and physics.

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04/16/21 | Neuropixels 2.0: A miniaturized high-density probe for stable, long-term brain recordings.
Steinmetz NA, Aydın Ç, Lebedeva A, Okun M, Pachitariu M, Bauza M, Beau M, Bhagat J, Böhm C, Broux M, Chen S, Colonell J, Gardner RJ, Karsh B, Kloosterman F, Kostadinov D, Mora-Lopez C, O'Callaghan J, Park J, Putzeys J, Sauerbrei B, van Daal RJ, Vollan AZ, Wang S, Welkenhuysen M, Ye Z, Dudman JT, Dutta B, Hantman AW, Harris KD, Lee AK, Moser EI, O'Keefe J, Renart A, Svoboda K, Häusser M, Haesler S, Carandini M, Harris TD
Science. 2021 Apr 16;372(6539):. doi: 10.1126/science.abf4588

Measuring the dynamics of neural processing across time scales requires following the spiking of thousands of individual neurons over milliseconds and months. To address this need, we introduce the Neuropixels 2.0 probe together with newly designed analysis algorithms. The probe has more than 5000 sites and is miniaturized to facilitate chronic implants in small mammals and recording during unrestrained behavior. High-quality recordings over long time scales were reliably obtained in mice and rats in six laboratories. Improved site density and arrangement combined with newly created data processing methods enable automatic post hoc correction for brain movements, allowing recording from the same neurons for more than 2 months. These probes and algorithms enable stable recordings from thousands of sites during free behavior, even in small animals such as mice.

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04/14/21 | VolPy: Automated and scalable analysis pipelines for voltage imaging datasets.
Cai C, Friedrich J, Singh A, Eybposh MH, Pnevmatikakis EA, Podgorski K, Giovannucci A
PLoS Computational Biology. 2021 Apr 14;17(4):e1008806. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008806

Voltage imaging enables monitoring neural activity at sub-millisecond and sub-cellular scale, unlocking the study of subthreshold activity, synchrony, and network dynamics with unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. However, high data rates (>800MB/s) and low signal-to-noise ratios create bottlenecks for analyzing such datasets. Here we present VolPy, an automated and scalable pipeline to pre-process voltage imaging datasets. VolPy features motion correction, memory mapping, automated segmentation, denoising and spike extraction, all built on a highly parallelizable, modular, and extensible framework optimized for memory and speed. To aid automated segmentation, we introduce a corpus of 24 manually annotated datasets from different preparations, brain areas and voltage indicators. We benchmark VolPy against ground truth segmentation, simulations and electrophysiology recordings, and we compare its performance with existing algorithms in detecting spikes. Our results indicate that VolPy's performance in spike extraction and scalability are state-of-the-art.

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04/06/21 | High-fidelity estimates of spikes and subthreshold waveforms from 1-photon voltage imaging in vivo.
Xie ME, Adam Y, Fan LZ, Böhm UL, Kinsella I, Zhou D, Rozsa M, Singh A, Svoboda K, Paninski L, Cohen AE
Cell Reports. 2021 Apr 06;35(1):108954. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108954

The ability to probe the membrane potential of multiple genetically defined neurons simultaneously would have a profound impact on neuroscience research. Genetically encoded voltage indicators are a promising tool for this purpose, and recent developments have achieved a high signal-to-noise ratio in vivo with 1-photon fluorescence imaging. However, these recordings exhibit several sources of noise and signal extraction remains a challenge. We present an improved signal extraction pipeline, spike-guided penalized matrix decomposition-nonnegative matrix factorization (SGPMD-NMF), which resolves supra- and subthreshold voltages in vivo. The method incorporates biophysical and optical constraints. We validate the pipeline with simultaneous patch-clamp and optical recordings from mouse layer 1 in vivo and with simulated and composite datasets with realistic noise. We demonstrate applications to mouse hippocampus expressing paQuasAr3-s or SomArchon1, mouse cortex expressing SomArchon1 or Voltron, and zebrafish spines expressing zArchon1.

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04/01/21 | Brain microvasculature has a common topology with local differences in geometry that match metabolic load.
Ji X, Ferreira T, Friedman B, Liu R, Liechty H, Bas E, Chandrashekar J, Kleinfeld D
Neuron. 2021 April 01;109(7):1168. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2021.02.006

The microvasculature underlies the supply networks that support neuronal activity within heterogeneous brain regions. What are common versus heterogeneous aspects of the connectivity, density, and orientation of capillary networks? To address this, we imaged, reconstructed, and analyzed the microvasculature connectome in whole adult mice brains with sub-micrometer resolution. Graph analysis revealed common network topology across the brain that leads to a shared structural robustness against the rarefaction of vessels. Geometrical analysis, based on anatomically accurate reconstructions, uncovered a scaling law that links length density, i.e., the length of vessel per volume, with tissue-to-vessel distances. We then derive a formula that connects regional differences in metabolism to differences in length density and, further, predicts a common value of maximum tissue oxygen tension across the brain. Last, the orientation of capillaries is weakly anisotropic with the exception of a few strongly anisotropic regions; this variation can impact the interpretation of fMRI data.

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04/01/21 | SNT: a unifying toolbox for quantification of neuronal anatomy.
Arshadi C, Günther U, Eddison M, Harrington KI, Ferreira TA
Nature Methods. 2021 Apr 01;18(4):374-377. doi: 10.1038/s41592-021-01105-7

SNT is an end-to-end framework for neuronal morphometry and whole-brain connectomics that supports tracing, proof-editing, visualization, quantification and modeling of neuroanatomy. With an open architecture, a large user base, community-based documentation, support for complex imagery and several model organisms, SNT is a flexible resource for the broad neuroscience community. SNT is both a desktop application and multi-language scripting library, and it is available through the Fiji distribution of ImageJ.

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04/01/21 | The art of lineage tracing: From worm to human.
Garcia-Marques J, Espinosa-Medina I, Lee T
Progress in Neurobiology. 2021 Apr;199:101966. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101966

Reconstructing the genealogy of every cell that makes up an organism remains a long-standing challenge in developmental biology. Besides its relevance for understanding the mechanisms underlying normal and pathological development, resolving the lineage origin of cell types will be crucial to create these types on-demand. Multiple strategies have been deployed towards the problem of lineage tracing, ranging from direct observation to sophisticated genetic approaches. Here we discuss the achievements and limitations of past and current technology. Finally, we speculate about the future of lineage tracing and how to reach the next milestones in the field.

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04/01/21 | The HaloTag as a general scaffold for far-red tunable chemigenetic indicators.
Deo C, Abdelfattah AS, Bhargava HK, Berro AJ, Falco N, Farrants H, Moeyaert B, Chupanova M, Lavis LD, Schreiter ER
Nature Chemical Biology. 2021 Apr 01:. doi: 10.1038/s41589-021-00775-w

Functional imaging using fluorescent indicators has revolutionized biology, but additional sensor scaffolds are needed to access properties such as bright, far-red emission. Here, we introduce a new platform for 'chemigenetic' fluorescent indicators, utilizing the self-labeling HaloTag protein conjugated to environmentally sensitive synthetic fluorophores. We solve a crystal structure of HaloTag bound to a rhodamine dye ligand to guide engineering efforts to modulate the dye environment. We show that fusion of HaloTag with protein sensor domains that undergo conformational changes near the bound dye results in large and rapid changes in fluorescence output. This generalizable approach affords bright, far-red calcium and voltage sensors with highly tunable photophysical and chemical properties, which can reliably detect single action potentials in cultured neurons.

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03/30/21 | A guide to accurate reporting in digital image processing - can anyone reproduce your quantitative analysis?
Aaron J, Chew T
Journal of Cell Science. 2021 Mar 30;134(6):. doi: 10.1242/jcs.254151

Considerable attention has been recently paid to improving replicability and reproducibility in life science research. This has resulted in commendable efforts to standardize a variety of reagents, assays, cell lines and other resources. However, given that microscopy is a dominant tool for biologists, comparatively little discussion has been offered regarding how the proper reporting and documentation of microscopy relevant details should be handled. Image processing is a critical step of almost any microscopy-based experiment; however, improper, or incomplete reporting of its use in the literature is pervasive. The chosen details of an image processing workflow can dramatically determine the outcome of subsequent analyses, and indeed, the overall conclusions of a study. This Review aims to illustrate how proper reporting of image processing methodology improves scientific reproducibility and strengthens the biological conclusions derived from the results.

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03/16/21 | Circuit reorganization in the Drosophila mushroom body calyx accompanies memory consolidation.
Baltruschat L, Prisco L, Ranft P, Lauritzen JS, Fiala A, Bock DD, Tavosanis G
Cell Reports. 2021 Mar 16;34(11):108871. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108871

The formation and consolidation of memories are complex phenomena involving synaptic plasticity, microcircuit reorganization, and the formation of multiple representations within distinct circuits. To gain insight into the structural aspects of memory consolidation, we focus on the calyx of the Drosophila mushroom body. In this essential center, essential for olfactory learning, second- and third-order neurons connect through large synaptic microglomeruli, which we dissect at the electron microscopy level. Focusing on microglomeruli that respond to a specific odor, we reveal that appetitive long-term memory results in increased numbers of precisely those functional microglomeruli responding to the conditioned odor. Hindering memory consolidation by non-coincident presentation of odor and reward, by blocking protein synthesis, or by including memory mutants suppress these structural changes, revealing their tight correlation with the process of memory consolidation. Thus, olfactory long-term memory is associated with input-specific structural modifications in a high-order center of the fly brain.

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