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11 Publications

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    12/10/90 | Agonistic interactions between ants and gall-living soldier aphids
    Utako Kurosu , David L Stern , Shigeyuki Aoki
    Journal of Ethology;8(2):139-141. doi: 10.1007/BF02350284
    12/07/90 | Spacing differentiation in the developing Drosophila eye: a fibrinogen-related lateral inhibitor encoded by scabrous.
    Baker NE, Mlodzik M, Rubin GM
    Science. 1990 Dec 7;250(4986):1370-7. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

    In the development of multicellular organisms a diversity of cell types differentiate at specific positions. Spacing patterns, in which an array of two or more cell types forms from a uniform field of cells, are a common feature of development. Identical precursor cells may adopt different fates because of competition and inhibition between them. Such a pattern in the developing Drosophila eye is the evenly spaced array of R8 cells, around which other cell types are subsequently recruited. Genetic studies suggest that the scabrous mutation disrupts a signal produced by R8 cells that inhibits other cells from also becoming R8 cells. The scabrous locus was cloned, and it appears to encode a secreted protein partly related to the beta and gamma chains of fibrinogen. It is proposed that the sca locus encodes a lateral inhibitor of R8 differentiation. The roles of the Drosophila EGF-receptor homologue (DER) and Notch genes in this process were also investigated.

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    A nuclear gene (QCR9) encoding the 7.3-kDa subunit 9 of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been isolated from a yeast genomic library by hybridization with a degenerate oligonucleotide corresponding to nine amino acids proximal to the N terminus of purified subunit 9. QCR9 includes a 195-base pair open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 66 amino acids and having a predicted molecular weight of 7471. The N-terminal methionine of subunit 9 is removed posttranslationally because the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein begins with serine 2. The ATG triplet corresponding to the N-terminal methionine is separated from the open reading frame by an intron. The intron is 213 base pairs long and contains previously reported 5’ donor, 3’ acceptor, and TACTAAC sequences necessary for splicing. The splice junctions, as well as the 5’ end of the message, were confirmed by isolation and sequencing of a cDNA copy of QCR9. In addition, the intron contains a nucleotide sequence in which 15 out of 18 nucleotides are identical with a sequence in the intron of COX4, the nuclear gene encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4. The deduced amino acid sequence of the yeast subunit 9 is 39% identical with that of a protein of similar molecular weight from beef heart cytochrome bc1 complex. If conservative substitutions are allowed for, the two proteins are 56% similar. The predicted secondary structure of the 7.3-kDa protein revealed a single possible transmembrane helix, in which the amino acids conserved between beef heart and yeast are asymmetrically arranged along one face of the helix, implying that this domain of the protein is involved in a conserved interaction with another hydrophobic protein of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Two yeast strains, JDP1 and JDP2, were constructed in which QCR9 was deleted. Both strains grew very poorly, or not at all, on nonfermentable carbon sources and exhibited, at most, only 5% of wild-type ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity. Optical spectra of mitochondrial membranes from the deletion strains revealed slightly reduced levels of cytochrome b. When JDP1 and JDP2 were complemented with a plasmid carrying QCR9, the resulting yeast grew normally on ethanol/glycerol and exhibited normal cytochrome c reductase activities and optical spectra. These results indicate that QCR9 encodes a 7.3-kDa subunit of the bc1 complex that is required for formation of a fully functional complex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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    11/01/90 | Merrill C. Sosman lecture. Drugs, behavior, and brain chemistry.
    Wagner HN
    American Journal of Roentgenology. 1990 Nov;155(5):925-31
    10/05/90 | Basic local alignment search tool.
    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ
    Journal of Molecular Biology. 1990 Oct 5;215(3):403-10. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1990.9999

    A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.

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    08/15/90 | Evidence for the influence of electron-electron interaction on the chemical potential of the two-dimensional electron gas.
    Kravchenko S, Rinberg D, Semenchinsky S, Pudalov V
    Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter. 1990 Aug 15;42(6):3741-44. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3613-08.2008

    It is shown experimentally that the interaction between electrons strongly influences the chemical potential of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas. At sufficiently low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, regions of filling factor appear where (i) the chemical potential μ diminishes with increasing carrier density, i.e., the thermodynamic density of states is negative; (ii) the derivative ∂μ/∂H (H is the magnetic field) is considerably higher than the maximum value for a noninteracting 2D electron gas. Using these results, we have estimated that the energy of the e-e interaction in Si inversion layers in a magnetic field is about 1 order of magnitude less than the classical Coulomb interaction calculated for Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors.

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    05/25/90 | A rapid and simple method for preparation of RNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Schmitt ME, Brown TA, Trumpower BL
    Nucleic Acids Research. 1990 May 25;18(10):3091-2
    05/01/90 | The homeo domain protein rough is expressed in a subset of cells in the developing Drosophila eye where it can specify photoreceptor cell subtype.
    Kimmel BE, Heberlein U, Rubin GM
    Genes & Development. 1990 May;4(5):712-27. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

    The Drosophila homeo box gene rough is required in photoreceptor cells R2 and R5 for normal eye development. We show here that rough protein expression is limited to a subset of cells in the developing retina where it is transiently expressed for 30-60 hr. The rough protein is first expressed broadly in the morphogenetic furrow but is rapidly restricted to the R2, R3, R4, and R5 precursor cells. Ubiquitous expression of rough under the control of the hsp70 promoter in third-instar larvae suppresses the initial steps of ommatidial assembly. Structures derived from other imaginal discs are not affected. Ectopic expression of rough in the R7 precursor, through the use of the sevenless promoter, causes this cell to develop into an R1-6 photoreceptor subtype; however, this cell still requires sevenless function for its neural differentiation. Taken together with previous analyses of the rough mutant phenotype, these results suggest that the normal role of rough is to establish the unique cell identity of photoreceptors R2 and R5.

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    03/01/90 | Analysis of cis-acting requirements of the Rh3 and Rh4 genes reveals a bipartite organization to rhodopsin promoters in Drosophila melanogaster.
    Fortini ME, Rubin GM
    Genes & Development. 1990 Mar;4(3):444-63. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

    The rhodopsin genes of Drosophila melanogaster are expressed in nonoverlapping subsets of photoreceptor cells within the insect visual system. Two of these genes, Rh3 and Rh4, are known to display complementary expression patterns in the UV-sensitive R7 photoreceptor cell population of the compound eye. In addition, we find that Rh3 is expressed in a small group of paired R7 and R8 photoreceptor cells at the dorsal eye margin that are apparently specialized for the detection of polarized light. In this paper we present a detailed characterization of the cis-acting requirements of both Rh3 and Rh4. Promoter deletion series demonstrate that small regulatory regions (less than 300 bp) of both R7 opsin genes contain DNA sequences sufficient to generate their respective expression patterns. Individual cis-acting elements were further identified by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis guided by interspecific sequence comparisons. Our results suggest that the Drosophila rhodopsin genes share a simple bipartite promoter structure, whereby the proximal region constitutes a functionally equivalent promoter "core" and the distal region determines cell-type specificity. The expression patterns of several hybrid rhodopsin promoters, in which all or part of the putative core regions have been replaced with the analogous regions of different rhodopsin promoters, provide additional evidence in support of this model.

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    02/01/90 | Postmetamorphic cell death in the nervous and muscular systems of Drosophila melanogaster.
    Kimura KI, Truman JW
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1990 Feb;10(2):403-1

    Programmed cell death occurs in the nervous and muscular system of newly emerged adult Drosophila melanogaster. Many of the abdominal muscles that were used for eclosion and wing-spreading behavior degenerate by 12 hr after eclosion. Related neurons in the ventral ganglion also die within the first 24 hr. Ligation experiments showed that the muscle breakdown is triggered by a signal from the anterior region, presumably the head, that occurs about 1 hr before adult emergence. The timing of this signal suggests that eclosion hormone may be involved. Although muscle death is triggered prior to ecdysis, it can be delayed, at least temporarily, by forcing the emerging flies to show a prolonged ecdysis behavior. In contrast to the muscles, the death of the neurons is triggered after emergence. The signal for neuronal degeneration is closely correlated with the initiation of wing inflation behavior. Ligation and digging experiments and behavioral manipulations that either blocked or delayed wing expansion behavior had a parallel effect in suppressing or delaying neuronal death.

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