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1416 Publications

Showing 1221-1230 of 1416 results
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    Zuker Lab
    01/01/01 | Independent anchoring and assembly mechanisms of INAD signaling complexes in Drosophila photoreceptors.
    Tsunoda S, Sun Y, Suzuki E, Zuker C
    The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2001 Jan 1;21(1):150-8

    In Drosophila photoreceptors the multivalent PDZ protein INAD organizes the phototransduction cascade into a macromolecular signaling complex containing the effector PLC, the light-activated TRP channels, and a regulatory PKC. Previously, we showed that the subcellular localization of INAD signaling complexes is critical for signaling. Now we have examined how INAD complexes are anchored and assembled in photoreceptor cells. We find that trp mutants, or transgenic flies expressing inaD alleles that disrupt the interaction between INAD and TRP, cause the mislocalization of the entire transduction complex. The INAD-TRP interaction is not required for targeting but rather for anchoring of complexes, because INAD and TRP can be targeted independently of each other. We also show that, in addition to its scaffold role, INAD functions to preassemble transduction complexes. Preassembly of signaling complexes helps to ensure that transduction complexes with the appropriate composition end up in the proper location. This may be a general mechanism used by cells to target different signaling machinery to the pertinent subcellular location.

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    Simpson Lab
    12/22/00 | Short-range and long-range guidance by Slit and its Robo receptors: a combinatorial code of Robo receptors controls lateral position.
    Simpson JH, Bland KS, Fetter RD, Goodman CS
    Cell. 2000 Dec 22;103(7):1019-32

    Slit is secreted by midline glia in Drosophila and functions as a short-range repellent to control midline crossing. Although most Slit stays near the midline, some diffuses laterally, functioning as a long-range chemorepellent. Here we show that a combinatorial code of Robo receptors controls lateral position in the CNS by responding to this presumptive Slit gradient. Medial axons express only Robo, intermediate axons express Robo3 and Robo, while lateral axons express Robo2, Robo3, and Robo. Removal of robo2 or robo3 causes lateral axons to extend medially; ectopic expression of Robo2 or Robo3 on medial axons drives them laterally. Precise topography of longitudinal pathways appears to be controlled by a combination of long-range guidance (the Robo code determining region) and short-range guidance (discrete local cues determining specific location within a region).

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    12/15/00 | Morphogenesis and gene expressions in the parthenogenetic embryogenesis of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum
    T Miura , S Kambhampati , DL Stern
    Seventy-First Annual Meeting of the Zoological Society of Japan ;17:66
    Simpson Lab
    12/01/00 | Short-range and long-range guidance by slit and its Robo receptors. Robo and Robo2 play distinct roles in midline guidance.
    Simpson JH, Kidd T, Bland KS, Goodman CS
    Neuron. 2000 Dec;28(3):753-66

    Previous studies showed that Roundabout (Robo) in Drosophila is a repulsive axon guidance receptor that binds to Slit, a repellent secreted by midline glia. In robo mutants, growth cones cross and recross the midline, while, in slit mutants, growth cones enter the midline but fail to leave it. This difference suggests that Slit must have more than one receptor controlling midline guidance. In the absence of Robo, some other Slit receptor ensures that growth cones do not stay at the midline, even though they cross and recross it. Here we show that the Drosophila genome encodes three Robo receptors and that Robo and Robo2 have distinct functions, which together control repulsive axon guidance at the midline. The robo,robo2 double mutant is largely identical to slit.

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    11/30/00 | Evolutionary biology. The problem of variation.
    Stern DL
    Nature. 2000 Nov 30;408(6812):529, 531. doi: 10.1038/35046183
    11/08/00 | Resting and active properties of pyramidal neurons in subiculum and CA1 of rat hippocampus.
    Staff NP, Jung HY, Thiagarajan T, Yao M, Spruston N
    J Neurophysiol. 2000 Nov;84(5):2398-408

    Action potentials are the end product of synaptic integration, a process influenced by resting and active neuronal membrane properties. Diversity in these properties contributes to specialized mechanisms of synaptic integration and action potential firing, which are likely to be of functional significance within neural circuits. In the hippocampus, the majority of subicular pyramidal neurons fire high-frequency bursts of action potentials, whereas CA1 pyramidal neurons exhibit regular spiking behavior when subjected to direct somatic current injection. Using patch-clamp recordings from morphologically identified neurons in hippocampal slices, we analyzed and compared the resting and active membrane properties of pyramidal neurons in the subiculum and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. In response to direct somatic current injection, three subicular firing types were identified (regular spiking, weak bursting, and strong bursting), while all CA1 neurons were regular spiking. Within subiculum strong bursting neurons were found preferentially further away from the CA1 subregion. Input resistance (R(N)), membrane time constant (tau(m)), and depolarizing "sag" in response to hyperpolarizing current pulses were similar in all subicular neurons, while R(N) and tau(m) were significantly larger in CA1 neurons. The first spike of all subicular neurons exhibited similar action potential properties; CA1 action potentials exhibited faster rising rates, greater amplitudes, and wider half-widths than subicular action potentials. Therefore both the resting and active properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons are distinct from those of subicular neurons, which form a related class of neurons, differing in their propensity to burst. We also found that both regular spiking subicular and CA1 neurons could be transformed into a burst firing mode by application of a low concentration of 4-aminopyridine, suggesting that in both hippocampal subfields, firing properties are regulated by a slowly inactivating, D-type potassium current. The ability of all subicular pyramidal neurons to burst strengthens the notion that they form a single neuronal class, sharing a burst generating mechanism that is stronger in some cells than others.

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    ro(Dom) is a dominant allele of rough (ro) that results in reduced eye size due to premature arrest in morphogenetic furrow (MF) progression. We found that the ro(Dom) stop-furrow phenotype was sensitive to the dosage of genes known to affect retinal differentiation, in particular members of the hedgehog (hh) signaling cascade. We demonstrate that ro(Dom) interferes with Hh's ability to induce the retina-specific proneural gene atonal (ato) in the MF and that normal eye size can be restored by providing excess Ato protein. We used ro(Dom) as a sensitive genetic background in which to identify mutations that affect hh signal transduction or regulation of ato expression. In addition to mutations in several unknown loci, we recovered multiple alleles of groucho (gro) and Hairless (H). Analysis of their phenotypes in somatic clones suggests that both normally act to restrict neuronal cell fate in the retina, although they control different aspects of ato's complex expression pattern.

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    10/27/00 | Diversity and dynamics of dendritic signaling.
    Häusser M, Spruston N, Stuart GJ
    Science. 2000 Oct 27;290(5492):739-44

    Communication between neurons in the brain occurs primarily through synapses made onto elaborate treelike structures called dendrites. New electrical and optical recording techniques have led to tremendous advances in our understanding of how dendrites contribute to neuronal computation in the mammalian brain. The varied morphology and electrical and chemical properties of dendrites enable a spectrum of local and long-range signaling, defining the input-output relationship of neurons and the rules for induction of synaptic plasticity. In this way, diversity in dendritic signaling allows individual neurons to carry out specialized functions within their respective networks.

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    Zuker Lab
    10/05/00 | A molecular pathway for light-dependent photoreceptor apoptosis in Drosophila.
    Kiselev A, Socolich M, Vinós J, Hardy RW, Zuker CS, Ranganathan R
    Neuron. 2000 Oct 5;28(1):139-52

    Light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis occurs in many forms of inherited retinal degeneration resulting in blindness in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Though mutations in several photoreceptor signaling proteins have been implicated in triggering this process, the molecular events relating light activation of rhodopsin to photoreceptor death are yet unclear. Here, we uncover a pathway by which activation of rhodopsin in Drosophila mediates apoptosis through a G protein-independent mechanism. This process involves the formation of membrane complexes of phosphorylated, activated rhodopsin and its inhibitory protein arrestin, and subsequent clathrin-dependent endocytosis of these complexes into a cytoplasmic compartment. Together, these data define the proapoptotic molecules in Drosophila photoreceptors and indicate a novel signaling pathway for light-activated rhodopsin molecules in control of photoreceptor viability.

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    10/01/00 | Functional ethanol tolerance in Drosophila.
    Scholz H, Ramond J, Singh CM, Heberlein U
    Neuron. 2000 Oct;28:261-71

    In humans, repeated alcohol consumption leads to the development of tolerance, manifested as a reduced physiological and behavioral response to a particular dose of alcohol. Here we show that adult Drosophila develop tolerance to the sedating and motor-impairing effects of ethanol with kinetics of acquisition and dissipation that mimic those seen in mammals. Importantly, this tolerance is not caused by changes in ethanol absorption or metabolism. Rather, the development of tolerance requires the functional and structural integrity of specific central brain regions. Mutants unable to synthesize the catecholamine octopamine are also impaired in their ability to develop tolerance. Taken together, these data show that Drosophila is a suitable model system in which to study the molecular and neuroanatomical bases of ethanol tolerance.

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