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1358 Publications

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    11/01/94 | A sublinear algorithm for approximate keyword matching.
    Myers E
    Algorithmica. 1994 Nov;12(4-5):345-74

    Given a relatively short query stringW of lengthP, a long subject stringA of lengthN, and a thresholdD, theapproximate keyword search problem is to find all substrings ofA that align withW with not more than D insertions, deletions, and mismatches. In typical applications, such as searching a DNA sequence database, the size of the “database”A is much larger than that of the queryW, e.g.,N is on the order of millions or billions andP is a hundred to a thousand. In this paper we present an algorithm that given a precomputedindex of the databaseA, finds rare matches in time that issublinear inN, i.e.,N c for somec<1. The sequenceA must be overa. finite alphabet σ. More precisely, our algorithm requires 0(DN pow(ɛ)  logN) expected-time where ɛ=D/P is the maximum number of differences as a percentage of query length, and pow(ɛ) is an increasing and concave function that is 0 when ɛ=0. Thus the algorithm is superior to current O(DN) algorithms when ɛ is small enough to guarantee that pow(ɛ) < 1. As seen in the paper, this is true for a wide range of ɛ, e.g., ɛ. up to 33% for DNA sequences (¦⌆¦=4) and 56% for proteins sequences (¦⌆¦=20). In preliminary practical experiments, the approach gives a 50-to 500-fold improvement over previous algorithms for prolems of interest in molecular biology.

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    Tjian LabRubin Lab
    07/15/94 | The activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for Drosophila eye development are modulated by the Ras/MAPK pathway.
    O’Neill EM, Rebay I, Tjian R, Rubin GM
    Cell. 1994 Jul 15;78(1):137-47. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

    We show that the activities of two Ets-related transcription factors required for normal eye development in Drosophila, pointed and yan, are regulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway. The pointed gene codes for two related proteins, and we show that one form is a constitutive activator of transcription, while the activity of the other form is stimulated by the Ras1/MAPK pathway. Mutation of the single consensus MAPK phosphorylation site in the second form abrogates this responsiveness. yan is a negative regulator of photoreceptor determination, and genetic data suggest that it acts as an antagonist of Ras1. We demonstrate that yan can repress transcription and that this repression activity is negatively regulated by the Ras1/MAPK signal, most likely through direct phosphorylation of yan by MAPK.

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    06/17/94 | Near-field spectroscopy of the quantum constituents of a luminescent system.
    Hess HF, Betzig E, Harris TD, Pfeiffer LN, West KW
    Science. 1994 Jun 17;264(5166):1740-5. doi: 10.1126/science.264.5166.1740

    Luminescent centers with sharp (<0.07 millielectron volt), spectrally distinct emission lines were imaged in a GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well by means of low-temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy. Temperature, magnetic field, and linewidth measurements establish that these centers arise from excitons laterally localized at interface fluctuations. For sufficiently narrow wells, virtually all emission originates from such centers. Near-field microscopy/spectroscopy provides a means to access energies and homogeneous line widths for the individual eigenstates of these centers, and thus opens a rich area of physics involving quantum resolved systems.

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    06/17/94 | Near-field spectroscopy of the quantum constituents of a luminescent system. (With commentary)
    Hess HF, Betzig E, Harris TD, Pfeiffer LN, West KW
    Science. 1994 Jun 17;264(5166):1740-5. doi: 10.1126/science.264.5166.1740

    Luminescent centers with sharp (<0.07 millielectron volt), spectrally distinct emission lines were imaged in a GaAs/AIGaAs quantum well by means of low-temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy. Temperature, magnetic field, and linewidth measurements establish that these centers arise from excitons laterally localized at interface fluctuations. For sufficiently narrow wells, virtually all emission originates from such centers. Near-field microscopy/spectroscopy provides a means to access energies and homogeneous line widths for the individual eigenstates of these centers, and thus opens a rich area of physics involving quantum resolved systems.

    Commentary: Harald Hess and I joined forces, combining my near-field optical technology with his cryogenic scanned probe microscope to produce the first paper on high resolution spectroscopy beyond the diffraction limit. We discovered that the broad luminescence spectrum traditionally observed from quantum well heterostructures reflects a resolution-limited ensemble average of emission from numerous discrete sites of exciton recombination occurring at atomic-scale corrugations in the confining interfaces. With the combination of high spatial resolution from near-field excitation and high spectral resolution from cryogenic operation, we were able to isolate these emission sites in a multidimensional space of xy position and wavelength, even though their density was too great to isolate them on the basis of spatial resolution alone. This insight was very influential in the genesis of the concept (see above) that would eventually lead to far-field superresolution by PALM.

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    06/04/94 | Mechanisms shaping glutamate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in the CNS.
    Jonas P, Spruston N
    Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1994 Jun;4(3):366-72

    Excitatory postsynaptic currents in neurones of the central nervous system have a dual-component time course that results from the co-activation of AMPA/kainate-type and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. New approaches in electrophysiology and molecular biology have provided a better understanding of the factors that determine the kinetics of excitatory postsynaptic currents. Recent studies suggest that the time course of neurotransmitter concentration in the synaptic cleft, the gating properties of the native channels, and the glutamate receptor subunit composition all appear to be important factors.

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    05/23/94 | A phylogenetic analysis of soldier evolution in the aphid family Hormaphididae.
    Stern DL
    Proc Biol Sci. 1994 May 23;256(1346):203-9. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1994.0071

    Aphid soldiers, altruistic larvae that protect the colony from predators, are an example of highly social behaviour in an insect group with a natural history different from the eusocial Hymenoptera and Isoptera. Aphids therefore allow independent tests of theory developed to explain the evolution of eusociality. Although soldiers have been discovered in five tribes from two families, the number and pattern of origins and losses of soldiers is unknown due to a lack of phylogenetic data. Here I present a mtDNA based phylogeny for the Hormaphididae, and test the hypothesis that soldiers in the tribe Cerataphidini produced during two points in the life cycle represent independent origins. The results support this hypothesis. In addition, a minimum of five evolutionary events, either four origins and one loss or five origins, are required to explain the distribution of soldiers in the family. The positions of the origins and losses are well resolved, and this phylogeny provides an historical framework for studies on the causes of soldier aphid evolution.

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    05/06/94 | The Drosophila peanut gene is required for cytokinesis and encodes a protein similar to yeast putative bud neck filament proteins.
    Neufeld TP, Rubin GM
    Cell. 1994 May 6;77(3):371-9. doi: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-7-r145

    We have identified a Drosophila gene, peanut (pnut), that is related in sequence to the CDC3, CDC10, CDC11, and CDC12 genes of S. cerevisiae. These genes are required for cytokinesis, and their products are present at the bud neck during cell division. We find that pnut is also required for cytokinesis: in pnut mutants, imaginal tissues fail to proliferate and instead develop clusters of large, multinucleate cells. Pnut protein is localized to the cleavage furrow of dividing cells during cytokinesis and to the intercellular bridge connecting postmitotic daughter cells. In addition to its role in cytokinesis, pnut displays genetic interactions with seven in absentia, a gene required for neuronal fate determination in the compound eye, suggesting that pnut may have pleiotropic functions. Our results suggest that this class of proteins is involved in aspects of cytokinesis that have been conserved between flies and yeast.

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    04/18/94 | Dimensions of luminescent oxidized and porous silicon structures.
    Schuppler S, Friedman S, Marcus M, Adler D, Xie Y, Ross F, Harris TD, Brown W, Chabal Y, Brus L, Citrin P
    Physical Review Letters. 1994 Apr 18;72(16):2648-51

    X-ray absorption measurements from H-passivated porous Si and from oxidized Si nanocrystals, combined with electron microscopy, ir absorption, α recoil, and luminescence emission data, provide a consistent structural picture of the species responsible for the visible luminescence observed in these samples. The mass-weighted average structures in por-Si are particles, not wires, with dimensions significantly smaller than previously reported or proposed.

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    04/17/94 | Dendritic attenuation of synaptic potentials and currents: the role of passive membrane properties.
    Spruston N, Jaffe DB, Johnston D
    Trends Neurosci. 1994 Apr;17(4):161-6

    The dendritic trees of neurons are structurally and functionally complex integrative units receiving thousands of synaptic inputs that have excitatory and inhibitory, fast and slow, and electrical and biochemical effects. The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in time and how it will respond to similar inputs in the future. Two critical factors affect the integrative function of dendrites: the distribution of voltage-gated ion channels in the dendritic tree and the passive electrical properties, or 'electrotonic structure', upon which these active channels are superimposed. The authors review recent data from patch-clamp recordings that provide new estimates of the passive membrane properties of hippocampal neurons, and show, with examples, how these properties affect the shaping and attenuation of synaptic potentials as they propagate in the dendrites, as well as how they affect the measurement of current from synapses located in the dendrites. Voltage-gated channels might influence the measurement of 'passive' membrane properties and, reciprocally, passive membrane properties might affect the activation of voltage-gated channels in dendrites.

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    Baker Lab
    01/01/94 | Behavioral and neurobiological implications of sex-determining factors in Drosophila.
    Baker B, Taylor B, Villella. A. , Ryner L, Hall J
    Developmental. Genetics. 1994;15(3):275-96

    The function of the central nervous system as it controls sex-specific behaviors in Drosophila has been studied with renewed intensity, in the context of genetic factors that influence the development of sexually differentiated aspects of this insect. Three categories of genetic variations that cause anomalies in courtship and mating behaviors are discussed: (1) mutants isolated with regard to courtship defects, of which putatively courtship-specific variants such as the fruitless mutant are a subset; (2) general behavioral and neurological variants (including sensory and learning mutants), whose defects include subnormal reproductive performance; and (3) mutations of genes within the sex-determination regulatory hierarchy of Drosophila, the analysis of which has included studies of reproductive behavior. Recent studies of mutations in two of these categories have provided new insights into the control of neuronally based aspects of sex-specific behavior. The doublesex gene, the final factor acting in the sex-determination hierarchy, had been previously thought to regulate all aspects of sexual differentiation. Yet, it has been recently shown that doublesex does not control at least one neuronally-determined feature of sex-specific anatomy--a muscle in the male's abdomen, whose normal development is, however, dependent on the action of fruitless. These considerations prompted us to examine further (and in some cases re-examine) the influences exerted by sex-determination hierarchy genes on behavior. Our results--notably those obtained from assessments of doublesex mutations' effects on general reproductive actions and on a particular component of the courtship sequence (male "singing" behavior)--lead to the suggestion that there is a previously unrecognized branch within the sex-determination hierarchy, which controls the differentiation of the male- and female- specific phenotypes of Drosophila. This new branch separates from the doublesex-related one immediately before the action of that gene (just after transformer and transformer-2) and appears to control as least some aspects of neuronally determined sexual differentiation of males.

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