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Schreiter Lab / Publications
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4 Publications

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    11/01/15 | Structural basis for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ22βsζ2βs2 trapped in a tense conformation.
    Safo MK, Ko T, Schreiter ER, Russell JE
    Journal of Molecular Structure. 2015 Nov;1099:99-107. doi: 10.1016/j.molstruc.2015.06.047

    The phenotypical severity of sickle cell disease (SCD) can be mitigated by modifying mutant hemoglobin S (Hb S, Hb α2β2s) to contain embryonic ζ globin in place of adult α-globin subunits (Hb ζ2β2s). Crystallographical analyses of liganded Hb ζζ2β2s, though, demonstrate a tense (T-state) quaternary structure that paradoxically predicts its participation in--rather than its exclusion from--pathological deoxyHb S polymers. We resolved this structure-function conundrum by examining the effects of α → ζ exchange on the characteristics of specific amino acids that mediate sickle polymer assembly. Superposition analyses of the βs subunits of T-state deoxyHb α2β2s and T-state CO-liganded Hb ζ2β2s reveal significant displacements of both mutant βsVal6 and conserved β-chain contact residues, predicting weakening of corresponding polymer-stabilizing interactions. Similar comparisons of the α- and ζ-globin subunits implicate four amino acids that are either repositioned or undergo non-conservative substitution, abrogating critical polymer contacts. CO-Hb ζ2βs2 additionally exhibits a unique trimer-of-heterotetramers crystal packing that is sustained by novel intermolecular interactions involving the pathological βsVal6, contrasting sharply with the classical double-stranded packing of deoxyHb S. Finally, the unusually large buried solvent-accessible surface area for CO-Hb ζ2β2s suggests that it does not co-assemble with deoxyHb S in vivo  . In sum, the antipolymer activities of Hb ζ2β2s appear to arise from both repositioning and replacement of specific α- and βs-chain residues, favoring an alternate T-state solution structure that is excluded from pathological deoxyHb S polymers. These data account for the antipolymer activity of Hb ζ2β2s, and recommend the utility of SCD therapeutics that capitalize on α-globin exchange strategies.

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    10/09/15 | A Low Affinity GCaMP3 Variant (GCaMPer) for Imaging the Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Store.
    Henderson MJ, Baldwin HA, Werley CA, Boccardo S, Whitaker LR, Yan X, Holt GT, Schreiter ER, Looger LL, Cohen AE, Kim DS, Harvey BK
    PloS one. 2015 Oct 09;10(10):e0139273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139273

    Endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is critical for cellular functions and is disrupted in diverse pathologies including neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Owing to the high concentration of calcium within the ER, studying this subcellular compartment requires tools that are optimized for these conditions. To develop a single-fluorophore genetically encoded calcium indicator for this organelle, we targeted a low affinity variant of GCaMP3 to the ER lumen (GCaMPer (10.19)). A set of viral vectors was constructed to express GCaMPer in human neuroblastoma cells, rat primary cortical neurons, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We observed dynamic changes in GCaMPer (10.19) fluorescence in response to pharmacologic manipulations of the ER calcium store. Additionally, periodic calcium efflux from the ER was observed during spontaneous beating of cardiomyocytes. GCaMPer (10.19) has utility in imaging ER calcium in living cells and providing insight into luminal calcium dynamics under physiologic and pathologic states.

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    Schreiter LabLooger Lab
    09/18/15 | Green-to-red photoconversion of GCaMP.
    Ai M, Mills H, Kanai M, Lai J, Deng J, Schreiter E, Looger L, Neubert T, Suh G
    PLoS One. 2015 Sep 18;10(9):e0138127. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138127

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) permit imaging intracellular calcium transients. Among GECIs, the GFP-based GCaMPs are the most widely used because of their high sensitivity and rapid response to changes in intracellular calcium concentrations. Here we report that the fluorescence of GCaMPs-including GCaMP3, GCaMP5 and GCaMP6-can be converted from green to red following exposure to blue-green light (450-500 nm). This photoconversion occurs in both insect and mammalian cells and is enhanced in a low oxygen environment. The red fluorescent GCaMPs retained calcium responsiveness, albeit with reduced sensitivity. We identified several amino acid residues in GCaMP important for photoconversion and generated a GCaMP variant with increased photoconversion efficiency in cell culture. This light-induced spectral shift allows the ready labeling of specific, targeted sets of GCaMP-expressing cells for functional imaging in the red channel. Together, these findings indicate the potential for greater utility of existing GCaMP reagents, including transgenic animals.

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    02/13/15 | Labeling of active neural circuits in vivo with designed calcium integrators.
    Fosque BF, Sun Y, Dana H, Yang C, Ohyama T, Tadross MR, Patel R, Zlatic M, Kim DS, Ahrens MB, Jayaraman V, Looger LL, Schreiter ER
    Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):755-60. doi: 10.1126/science.1260922

    The identification of active neurons and circuits in vivo is a fundamental challenge in understanding the neural basis of behavior. Genetically encoded calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators (GECIs) enable quantitative monitoring of cellular-resolution activity during behavior. However, such indicators require online monitoring within a limited field of view. Alternatively, post hoc staining of immediate early genes (IEGs) indicates highly active cells within the entire brain, albeit with poor temporal resolution. We designed a fluorescent sensor, CaMPARI, that combines the genetic targetability and quantitative link to neural activity of GECIs with the permanent, large-scale labeling of IEGs, allowing a temporally precise "activity snapshot" of a large tissue volume. CaMPARI undergoes efficient and irreversible green-to-red conversion only when elevated intracellular Ca(2+) and experimenter-controlled illumination coincide. We demonstrate the utility of CaMPARI in freely moving larvae of zebrafish and flies, and in head-fixed mice and adult flies.

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