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54 Publications

Showing 41-50 of 54 results
09/11/09 | Thioredoxin-independent regulation of metabolism by the alpha-arrestin proteins.
Patwari P, Chutkow WA, Cummings K, Verstraeten VL, Lammerding J, Schreiter ER, Lee RT
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009 Sep 11;284(37):24996-5003. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.018093

Thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), originally characterized as an inhibitor of thioredoxin, is now known to be a critical regulator of glucose metabolism in vivo. Txnip is a member of the alpha-arrestin protein family; the alpha-arrestins are related to the classical beta-arrestins and visual arrestins. Txnip is the only alpha-arrestin known to bind thioredoxin, and it is not known whether the metabolic effects of Txnip are related to its ability to bind thioredoxin or related to conserved alpha-arrestin function. Here we show that wild type Txnip and Txnip C247S, a Txnip mutant that does not bind thioredoxin in vitro, both inhibit glucose uptake in mature adipocytes and in primary skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, we show that Txnip C247S does not bind thioredoxin in cells, using thiol alkylation to trap the Txnip-thioredoxin complex. Because Txnip function was independent of thioredoxin binding, we tested whether inhibition of glucose uptake was conserved in the related alpha-arrestins Arrdc4 and Arrdc3. Both Txnip and Arrdc4 inhibited glucose uptake and lactate output, while Arrdc3 had no effect. Structure-function analysis indicated that Txnip and Arrdc4 inhibit glucose uptake independent of the C-terminal WW-domain binding motifs, recently identified as important in yeast alpha-arrestins. Instead, regulation of glucose uptake was intrinsic to the arrestin domains themselves. These data demonstrate that Txnip regulates cellular metabolism independent of its binding to thioredoxin and reveal the arrestin domains as crucial structural elements in metabolic functions of alpha-arrestin proteins.

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Looger LabSchreiter Lab
03/06/09 | Crystal structures of the GCaMP calcium sensor reveal the mechanism of fluorescence signal change and aid rational design.
Akerboom J, Rivera JD, Guilbe MM, Malavé EC, Hernandez HH, Tian L, Hires SA, Marvin JS, Looger LL, Schreiter ER
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2009 Mar 6;284:6455-64. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M807657200

The genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 shows promise for neural network activity imaging, but is currently limited by low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe x-ray crystal structures as well as solution biophysical and spectroscopic characterization of GCaMP2 in the calcium-free dark state, and in two calcium-bound bright states: a monomeric form that dominates at intracellular concentrations observed during imaging experiments and an unexpected domain-swapped dimer with decreased fluorescence. This series of structures provides insight into the mechanism of Ca2+-induced fluorescence change. Upon calcium binding, the calmodulin (CaM) domain wraps around the M13 peptide, creating a new domain interface between CaM and the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein domain. Residues from CaM alter the chemical environment of the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein chromophore and, together with flexible inter-domain linkers, block solvent access to the chromophore. Guided by the crystal structures, we engineered a series of GCaMP2 point mutants to probe the mechanism of GCaMP2 function and characterized one mutant with significantly improved signal-to-noise. The mutation is located at a domain interface and its effect on sensor function could not have been predicted in the absence of structural data.

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Looger LabSchreiter Lab
07/01/08 | Crystallization and preliminary x-ray characterization of the genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicator protein GCaMP2.
Rodríguez Guilbe MM, Alfaro Malavé EC, Akerboom J, Marvin JS, Looger LL, Schreiter ER
Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. 2008 Jul 1;64:629-31. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108016059

Fluorescent proteins and their engineered variants have played an important role in the study of biology. The genetically encoded calcium-indicator protein GCaMP2 comprises a circularly permuted fluorescent protein coupled to the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and a calmodulin target peptide, M13, derived from the intracellular calmodulin target myosin light-chain kinase and has been used to image calcium transients in vivo. To aid rational efforts to engineer improved variants of GCaMP2, this protein was crystallized in the calcium-saturated form. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 A resolution. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 126.1.

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05/01/08 | Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of full-length Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin.
Alfaro E, Sosa LD, Sanoguet Z, Pastrana-Ríos B, Schreiter ER
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications. 2008 May 1;64(Pt 5):402-4. doi: 10.1107/S1744309108009123

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii centrin is a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding superfamily. It is found in the basal body complex and is important for flagellar motility. Like other members of the EF-hand family, centrin interacts with and modulates the function of other proteins in a calcium-dependent manner. To understand how C. reinhardtii centrin interacts with its protein targets, it has been crystallized in the presence of the model peptide melittin and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 A resolution. The crystals are orthorhombic, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.1, b = 114.4, c = 34.8 A, and are likely to belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2.

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02/19/08 | Structural basis of the metal specificity for nickel regulatory protein NikR.
Phillips CM, Schreiter ER, Guo Y, Wang SC, Zamble DB, Drennan CL
Biochemistry. 2008 Feb 19;47(7):1938-46. doi: 10.1021/bi702006h

In the presence of excess nickel, Escherichia coli NikR regulates cellular nickel uptake by suppressing the transcription of the nik operon, which encodes the nickel uptake transporter, NikABCDE. Previously published in vitro studies have shown that NikR is capable of binding a range of divalent transition metal ions in addition to Ni2+, including Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+. To understand how the high-affinity nickel binding site of NikR is able to accommodate these other metal ions, and to improve our understanding of NikR's mechanism of binding to DNA, we have determined structures of the metal-binding domain (MBD) of NikR in the apo form and in complex with Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions and compared them with the previously published structures with Ni2+. We observe that Cu2+ ions bind in a manner very similar to that of Ni2+, with a square planar geometry but with longer bond lengths. Crystals grown in the presence of Zn2+ reveal a protein structure similar to that of apo MBD with a disordered alpha3 helix, but with two electron density peaks near the Ni2+ binding site corresponding to two Zn2+ ions. These structural findings along with biochemical data on NikR support a hypothesis that ordering of the alpha3 helix is important for repressor activation.

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09/01/07 | Ribbon-helix-helix transcription factors: variations on a theme.
Schreiter ER, Drennan CL
Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2007 Sep;5(9):710-20. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro1717

The ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) superfamily of transcription factors uses a conserved three-dimensional structural motif to bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. This functionally diverse protein superfamily regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in the uptake of metals, amino-acid biosynthesis, cell division, the control of plasmid copy number, the lytic cycle of bacteriophages and, perhaps, many other cellular processes. In this Analysis, the structures of different RHH transcription factors are compared in order to evaluate the sequence motifs that are required for RHH-domain folding and DNA binding, as well as to identify conserved protein-DNA interactions in this superfamily.

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07/06/07 | S-nitrosylation-induced conformational change in blackfin tuna myoglobin.
Schreiter ER, Rodríguez MM, Weichsel A, Montfort WR, Bonaventura J
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007 Jul 6;282(27):19773-80. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M701363200

S-nitrosylation is a post-translational protein modification that can alter the function of a variety of proteins. Despite the growing wealth of information that this modification may have important functional consequences, little is known about the structure of the moiety or its effect on protein tertiary structure. Here we report high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of S-nitrosylated and unmodified blackfin tuna myoglobin, which demonstrate that in vitro S-nitrosylation of this protein at the surface-exposed Cys-10 directly causes a reversible conformational change by "wedging" apart a helix and loop. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in solution and in a single crystal that reduction of the S-nitrosylated myoglobin with dithionite results in NO cleavage from the sulfur of Cys-10 and rebinding to the reduced heme iron, showing the reversibility of both the modification and the conformational changes. Finally, we report the 0.95-A structure of ferrous nitrosyl myoglobin, which provides an accurate structural view of the NO coordination geometry in the context of a globin heme pocket.

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06/01/07 | IL-33 and ST2 comprise a critical biomechanically induced and cardioprotective signaling system.
Sanada S, Hakuno D, Higgins LJ, Schreiter ER, McKenzie AN, Lee RT
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007 Jun;117(6):1538-49. doi: 10.1172/JCI30634

ST2 is an IL-1 receptor family member with transmembrane (ST2L) and soluble (sST2) isoforms. sST2 is a mechanically induced cardiomyocyte protein, and serum sST2 levels predict outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure. Recently, IL-33 was identified as a functional ligand of ST2L, allowing exploration of the role of ST2 in myocardium. We found that IL-33 was a biomechanically induced protein predominantly synthesized by cardiac fibroblasts. IL-33 markedly antagonized angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Although IL-33 activated NF-kappaB, it inhibited angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-kappa B alpha (I kappa B alpha) and NF-kappaB nuclear binding activity. sST2 blocked antihypertrophic effects of IL-33, indicating that sST2 functions in myocardium as a soluble decoy receptor. Following pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ST2(-/-) mice had more left ventricular hypertrophy, more chamber dilation, reduced fractional shortening, more fibrosis, and impaired survival compared with WT littermates. Furthermore, recombinant IL-33 treatment reduced hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved survival after TAC in WT mice, but not in ST2(-/-) littermates. Thus, IL-33/ST2 signaling is a mechanically activated, cardioprotective fibroblast-cardiomyocyte paracrine system, which we believe to be novel. IL-33 may have therapeutic potential for beneficially regulating the myocardial response to overload.

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11/01/06 | Role of thioredoxin in cell growth through interactions with signaling molecules.
Yoshioka J, Schreiter ER, Lee RT
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(11-12):2143-51. doi: 10.1089/ars.2006.8.2143

The thioredoxin system helps maintain a reducing environment in cells, but thioredoxin functions as more than simply an antioxidant. Thioredoxin functions depend on the protein's redox state, as determined by two conserved cysteines. Key biologic activities of thioredoxin include antioxidant, growth control, and antiapoptotic properties, resulting from interaction with target molecules including transcription factors. Mechanisms by which thioredoxin regulates cell growth include binding to signaling molecules such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK-1) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip). The molecular interplay between thioredoxin, ASK-1, and Txnip potentially influences cell growth and survival in diverse human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. In this review, we focus on the structure of thioredoxin and its functional regulation of cell growth through the interactions with signaling molecules.

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09/12/06 | NikR-operator complex structure and the mechanism of repressor activation by metal ions.
Schreiter ER, Wang SC, Zamble DB, Drennan CL
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006 Sep 12;103(37):13676-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606247103

Metal ion homeostasis is critical to the survival of all cells. Regulation of nickel concentrations in Escherichia coli is mediated by the NikR repressor via nickel-induced transcriptional repression of the nickel ABC-type transporter, NikABCDE. Here, we report two crystal structures of nickel-activated E. coli NikR, the isolated repressor at 2.1 A resolution and in a complex with its operator DNA sequence from the nik promoter at 3.1 A resolution. Along with the previously published structure of apo-NikR, these structures allow us to evaluate functional proposals for how metal ions activate NikR, delineate the drastic conformational changes required for operator recognition, and describe the formation of a second metal-binding site in the presence of DNA. They also provide a rare set of structural views of a ligand-responsive transcription factor in the unbound, ligand-induced, and DNA-bound states, establishing a model system for the study of ligand-mediated effects on transcription factor function.

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