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58 Publications

Showing 51-58 of 58 results
07/06/07 | S-nitrosylation-induced conformational change in blackfin tuna myoglobin.
Schreiter ER, Rodríguez MM, Weichsel A, Montfort WR, Bonaventura J
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007 Jul 6;282(27):19773-80. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M701363200

S-nitrosylation is a post-translational protein modification that can alter the function of a variety of proteins. Despite the growing wealth of information that this modification may have important functional consequences, little is known about the structure of the moiety or its effect on protein tertiary structure. Here we report high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of S-nitrosylated and unmodified blackfin tuna myoglobin, which demonstrate that in vitro S-nitrosylation of this protein at the surface-exposed Cys-10 directly causes a reversible conformational change by "wedging" apart a helix and loop. Furthermore, we have demonstrated in solution and in a single crystal that reduction of the S-nitrosylated myoglobin with dithionite results in NO cleavage from the sulfur of Cys-10 and rebinding to the reduced heme iron, showing the reversibility of both the modification and the conformational changes. Finally, we report the 0.95-A structure of ferrous nitrosyl myoglobin, which provides an accurate structural view of the NO coordination geometry in the context of a globin heme pocket.

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06/01/07 | IL-33 and ST2 comprise a critical biomechanically induced and cardioprotective signaling system.
Sanada S, Hakuno D, Higgins LJ, Schreiter ER, McKenzie AN, Lee RT
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007 Jun;117(6):1538-49. doi: 10.1172/JCI30634

ST2 is an IL-1 receptor family member with transmembrane (ST2L) and soluble (sST2) isoforms. sST2 is a mechanically induced cardiomyocyte protein, and serum sST2 levels predict outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure. Recently, IL-33 was identified as a functional ligand of ST2L, allowing exploration of the role of ST2 in myocardium. We found that IL-33 was a biomechanically induced protein predominantly synthesized by cardiac fibroblasts. IL-33 markedly antagonized angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Although IL-33 activated NF-kappaB, it inhibited angiotensin II- and phenylephrine-induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-kappa B alpha (I kappa B alpha) and NF-kappaB nuclear binding activity. sST2 blocked antihypertrophic effects of IL-33, indicating that sST2 functions in myocardium as a soluble decoy receptor. Following pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), ST2(-/-) mice had more left ventricular hypertrophy, more chamber dilation, reduced fractional shortening, more fibrosis, and impaired survival compared with WT littermates. Furthermore, recombinant IL-33 treatment reduced hypertrophy and fibrosis and improved survival after TAC in WT mice, but not in ST2(-/-) littermates. Thus, IL-33/ST2 signaling is a mechanically activated, cardioprotective fibroblast-cardiomyocyte paracrine system, which we believe to be novel. IL-33 may have therapeutic potential for beneficially regulating the myocardial response to overload.

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11/01/06 | Role of thioredoxin in cell growth through interactions with signaling molecules.
Yoshioka J, Schreiter ER, Lee RT
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 2006 Nov-Dec;8(11-12):2143-51. doi: 10.1089/ars.2006.8.2143

The thioredoxin system helps maintain a reducing environment in cells, but thioredoxin functions as more than simply an antioxidant. Thioredoxin functions depend on the protein's redox state, as determined by two conserved cysteines. Key biologic activities of thioredoxin include antioxidant, growth control, and antiapoptotic properties, resulting from interaction with target molecules including transcription factors. Mechanisms by which thioredoxin regulates cell growth include binding to signaling molecules such as apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK-1) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip). The molecular interplay between thioredoxin, ASK-1, and Txnip potentially influences cell growth and survival in diverse human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. In this review, we focus on the structure of thioredoxin and its functional regulation of cell growth through the interactions with signaling molecules.

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09/12/06 | NikR-operator complex structure and the mechanism of repressor activation by metal ions.
Schreiter ER, Wang SC, Zamble DB, Drennan CL
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006 Sep 12;103(37):13676-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606247103

Metal ion homeostasis is critical to the survival of all cells. Regulation of nickel concentrations in Escherichia coli is mediated by the NikR repressor via nickel-induced transcriptional repression of the nickel ABC-type transporter, NikABCDE. Here, we report two crystal structures of nickel-activated E. coli NikR, the isolated repressor at 2.1 A resolution and in a complex with its operator DNA sequence from the nik promoter at 3.1 A resolution. Along with the previously published structure of apo-NikR, these structures allow us to evaluate functional proposals for how metal ions activate NikR, delineate the drastic conformational changes required for operator recognition, and describe the formation of a second metal-binding site in the presence of DNA. They also provide a rare set of structural views of a ligand-responsive transcription factor in the unbound, ligand-induced, and DNA-bound states, establishing a model system for the study of ligand-mediated effects on transcription factor function.

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10/01/03 | Crystal structure of the nickel-responsive transcription factor NikR.
Schreiter ER, Sintchak MD, Guo Y, Chivers PT, Sauer RT, Drennan CL
Nature Structural Biology. 2003 Oct;10(10):794-9. doi: 10.1038/nsb985

NikR is a metal-responsive transcription factor that controls nickel uptake in Escherichia coli by regulating expression of a nickel-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. We have determined the first two structures of NikR: the full-length apo repressor at a resolution of 2.3 A and the nickel-bound C-terminal regulatory domain at a resolution of 1.4 A. NikR is the only known metal-responsive member of the ribbon-helix-helix family of transcription factors, and its structure has a quaternary arrangement consisting of two dimeric DNA-binding domains separated by a tetrameric regulatory domain that binds nickel. The position of the C-terminal regulatory domain enforces a large spacing between the contacts that each NikR DNA-binding domain can make with the nik operator. The regulatory domain of NikR contains four nickel-binding sites at the tetramer interface, each exhibiting a novel square-planar coordination by three histidines and one cysteine side chain.

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10/09/01 | Life on carbon monoxide: X-ray structure of Rhodospirillum rubrum Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase.
Drennan CL, Heo J, Sintchak MD, Schreiter ER, Ludden PW
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2001-10-09;98(21):11973-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.211429998

A crystal structure of the anaerobic Ni-Fe-S carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum has been determined to 2.8-Å resolution. The CODH family, for which the R. rubrum enzyme is the prototype, catalyzes the biological oxidation of CO at an unusual Ni-Fe-S cluster called the C-cluster. The Ni-Fe-S C-cluster contains a mononuclear site and a four-metal cubane. Surprisingly, anomalous dispersion data suggest that the mononuclear site contains Fe and not Ni, and the four-metal cubane has the form [NiFe3S4] and not [Fe4S4]. The mononuclear site and the four-metal cluster are bridged by means of Cys531 and one of the sulfides of the cube. CODH is organized as a dimer with a previously unidentified [Fe4S4] cluster bridging the two subunits. Each monomer is comprised of three domains: a helical domain at the N terminus, an α/β (Rossmann-like) domain in the middle, and an α/β (Rossmann-like) domain at the C terminus. The helical domain contributes ligands to the bridging [Fe4S4] cluster and another [Fe4S4] cluster, the B-cluster, which is involved in electron transfer. The two Rossmann domains contribute ligands to the active site C-cluster. This x-ray structure provides insight into the mechanism of biological CO oxidation and has broader significance for the roles of Ni and Fe in biological systems.

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05/07/01 | Ionic liquids based on FeCl(3) and FeCl(2). Raman scattering and ab initio calculations.
Sitze MS, Schreiter ER, Patterson EV, Freeman RG
Inorganic Chemistry. 2001 May 7;40(10):2298-304

We have prepared ionic liquids by mixing either iron(II) chloride or iron(III) chloride with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIC). Iron(II) chloride forms ionic liquids from a mole ratio of 1 FeCl(2)/3 BMIC to almost 1 FeCl(2)/1 BMIC. Both Raman scattering and ab initio calculations indicate that FeCl(4)(2-) is the predominant iron-containing species in these liquids. Iron(III) chloride forms ionic liquids from a mole ratio of 1 FeCl(3)/1.9 BMIC to 1.7 FeCl(3)/1 BMIC. When BMIC is in excess, Raman scattering indicates the presence of FeCl(4-). When FeCl(3) is in excess, Fe(2)Cl(7-) begins to appear and the amount of Fe(2)Cl(7-) increases with increasing amounts of FeCl(3). Ionic liquids were also prepared from a mixture of FeCl(2) and FeCl(3) and are discussed. Finally, we have used both Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods to compute the optimized structures and vibrational spectra for these species. An analysis of the results using an all-electron basis set, 6-31G, as well as two different effective core potential basis sets, LANL2DZ and CEP-31G is presented.

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08/23/99 | A room-temperature molten salt prepared from AuCl3 and 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.
Schreiter ER, Stevens JE, Ortwerth MF, Freeman RG
Inorganic Chemistry. 1999 Aug 23;38(17):3935-7. doi: 10.1021/ic990062u

A room-temperature molten salt has been prepared from AuCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC). At a ratio of 1 mol of AuCl3 to 2 mol of EMIC, the salt is a bright yellow-orange and shows Raman spectral features at 170, 328, and 352 cm-1, indicating the presence of AuCl4-. Ab initio calculations indicate that a dinuclear Au2Cl7- species containing a bridging chlorine should be stable, but no such species has been observed.

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