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6 Janelia Publications

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    11/08/17 | Fully integrated silicon probes for high-density recording of neural activity.
    Jun JJ, Steinmetz NA, Siegle JH, Denman DJ, Bauza M, Barbarits B, Lee AK, Anastassiou CA, Andrei A, Aydın Ç, Barbic M, Blanche TJ, Bonin V, Couto J, Dutta B, Gratiy SL, Gutnisky DA, Häusser M, Karsh B, Ledochowitsch P, Lopez CM, Mitelut C, Musa S, Okun M, Pachitariu M, Putzeys J, Rich PD, Rossant C, Sun W, Svoboda K, Carandini M, Harris KD, Koch C, O'Keefe J, Harris TD
    Nature. 2017 Nov 08;551(7679):232-236. doi: 10.1038/nature24636

    Sensory, motor and cognitive operations involve the coordinated action of large neuronal populations across multiple brain regions in both superficial and deep structures. Existing extracellular probes record neural activity with excellent spatial and temporal (sub-millisecond) resolution, but from only a few dozen neurons per shank. Optical Ca(2+) imaging offers more coverage but lacks the temporal resolution needed to distinguish individual spikes reliably and does not measure local field potentials. Until now, no technology compatible with use in unrestrained animals has combined high spatiotemporal resolution with large volume coverage. Here we design, fabricate and test a new silicon probe known as Neuropixels to meet this need. Each probe has 384 recording channels that can programmably address 960 complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processing-compatible low-impedance TiN sites that tile a single 10-mm long, 70 × 20-μm cross-section shank. The 6 × 9-mm probe base is fabricated with the shank on a single chip. Voltage signals are filtered, amplified, multiplexed and digitized on the base, allowing the direct transmission of noise-free digital data from the probe. The combination of dense recording sites and high channel count yielded well-isolated spiking activity from hundreds of neurons per probe implanted in mice and rats. Using two probes, more than 700 well-isolated single neurons were recorded simultaneously from five brain structures in an awake mouse. The fully integrated functionality and small size of Neuropixels probes allowed large populations of neurons from several brain structures to be recorded in freely moving animals. This combination of high-performance electrode technology and scalable chip fabrication methods opens a path towards recording of brain-wide neural activity during behaviour.

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    07/25/17 | Experience-dependent shaping of hippocampal CA1 intracellular activity in novel and familiar environments.
    Cohen JD, Bolstad M, Lee AK
    eLife. 2017 Jul 25;6:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.23040

    The hippocampus is critical for producing stable representations of familiar spaces. How these representations arise is poorly understood, largely because changes to hippocampal inputs have not been measured during spatial learning. Here, using intracellular recording, we monitored inputs and plasticity-inducing complex spikes (CSs) in CA1 neurons while mice explored novel and familiar virtual environments. Inputs driving place field spiking increased in amplitude - often suddenly - during novel environment exploration. However, these increases were not sustained in familiar environments. Rather, the spatial tuning of inputs became increasingly similar across repeated traversals of the environment with experience - both within fields and throughout the whole environment. In novel environments, CSs were not necessary for place field formation. Our findings support a model in which initial inhomogeneities in inputs are amplified to produce robust place field activity, then plasticity refines this representation into one with less strongly modulated, but more stable, inputs for long-term storage.

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    05/31/17 | Mesoscale-duration activated states gate spiking in response to fast rises in membrane voltage in the awake brain.
    Singer AC, Talei Franzesi G, Kodandaramaiah SB, Flores FJ, Cohen JD, Lee AK, Börgers C, Forest CR, Kopell NJ, Boyden ES
    Journal of Neurophysiology. 2017 May 31;118(2):1270-91. doi: 10.1152/jn.00116.2017

    Seconds-scale network states, affecting many neurons within a network, modulate neural activity by complementing fast integration of neuron-specific inputs that arrive in the milliseconds before spiking. Non-rhythmic subthreshold dynamics at intermediate timescales, however, are less well-characterized. We found, using automated whole cell patch clamping in vivo, that spikes recorded in CA1 and barrel cortex in awake mice are often preceded not only by monotonic voltage rises lasting milliseconds, but also by more gradual (lasting 10s-100s of ms) depolarizations. The latter exert a gating function on spiking, in a fashion that depends on the gradual rise duration: the probability of spiking was higher for longer gradual rises, even controlling for the amplitude of the gradual rises. Barrel cortex double-autopatch recordings show that gradual rises are shared across some but not all neurons. The gradual rises may represent a new kind of state, intermediate both in timescale and in proportion of neurons participating, which gates a neuron's ability to respond to subsequent inputs.

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    04/03/17 | Efficient method for whole-cell recording in freely moving rodents using ultraviolet-cured collar-based pipette stabilization.
    Lee D, Lee AK
    Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2017 Apr 03;2017(4):pdb.prot095810. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot095810

    Whole-cell recording is a key technique for investigating synaptic and cellular mechanisms underlying various brain functions. However, because of its high sensitivity to mechanical disturbances, applying the whole-cell recording method to freely moving animals has been challenging. Here, we describe a technique for obtaining such recordings in freely moving, drug-free animals with a high success rate. This technique involves three major steps: obtaining a whole-cell recording from awake head-fixed animals, reliable and efficient stabilization of the pipette with respect to the animal's head using an ultraviolet (UV)-transparent collar and UV-cured adhesive, and rapid release of the animal from head fixation without loss of the recording. This technique has been successfully applied to obtain intracellular recordings from the hippocampus of freely moving rats and mice exploring a spatial environment, and should be generally applicable to other brain areas in animals engaged in a variety of natural behaviors.

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    04/03/17 | In vivo patch-clamp recording in awake head-fixed rodents.
    Lee D, Lee AK
    Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2017 Apr 03;2017(4):pdb.prot095802. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot095802

    Whole-cell recording has been used to measure and manipulate a neuron's spiking and subthreshold membrane potential, allowing assessment of the cell's inputs and outputs as well as its intrinsic membrane properties. This technique has also been combined with pharmacology and optogenetics as well as morphological reconstruction to address critical questions concerning neuronal integration, plasticity, and connectivity. This protocol describes a technique for obtaining whole-cell recordings in awake head-fixed animals, allowing such questions to be investigated within the context of an intact network and natural behavioral states. First, animals are habituated to sit quietly with their heads fixed in place. Then, a whole-cell recording is obtained using an efficient, blind patching protocol. We have successfully applied this technique to rats and mice.

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    04/03/17 | Whole-cell recording in the awake brain.
    Lee D, Lee AK
    Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2017 Apr 03;2017(4):pdb.top087304. doi: 10.1101/pdb.top087304

    Intracellular recording is an essential technique for investigating cellular mechanisms underlying complex brain functions. Despite the high sensitivity of the technique to mechanical disturbances, intracellular recording has been applied to awake, behaving, and even freely moving, animals. Here we summarize recent advances in these methods and their application to the measurement and manipulation of membrane potential dynamics for understanding neuronal computations in behaving animals.

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