Main Menu (Mobile)- Block

Main Menu - Block

custom | custom

Search Results

filters_region_cap | custom

Filter

facetapi-Q2b17qCsTdECvJIqZJgYMaGsr8vANl1n | block

Associated Lab

facetapi-61yz1V0li8B1bixrCWxdAe2aYiEXdhd0 | block
facetapi-PV5lg7xuz68EAY8eakJzrcmwtdGEnxR0 | block
general_search_page-panel_pane_1 | views_panes

6 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-6 of 6 results
Your Criteria:
    05/28/22 | An essential experimental control for functional connectivity mapping with optogenetics.
    David Tadres , Hiroshi M. Shiozaki , Ibrahim Tastekin , David L. Stern , Matthieu Louis
    bioRxiv. 2022 May 28:. doi: 10.1101/2022.05.26.493610

    To establish functional connectivity between two candidate neurons that might form a circuit element, a common approach is to activate an optogenetic tool such as Chrimson in the candidate pre-synaptic neuron and monitor fluorescence of the calcium-sensitive indicator GCaMP in a candidate post-synaptic neuron. While performing such experiments, we found that low levels of leaky Chrimson expression can lead to strong artifactual GCaMP signals in presumptive postsynaptic neurons even when Chrimson is not intentionally expressed in any particular neurons. Withholding all-trans retinal, the chromophore required as a co-factor for Chrimson response to light, eliminates GCaMP signal but does not provide an experimental control for leaky Chrimson expression. Leaky Chrimson expression appears to be an inherent feature of current Chrimson transgenes, since artifactual connectivity was detected with Chrimson transgenes integrated into three different genomic locations (two insertions tested in larvae; a third insertion tested in the adult fly). These false-positive signals may complicate the interpretation of functional connectivity experiments. We illustrate how a no-Gal4 negative control improves interpretability of functional connectivity assays. We also propose a simple but effective procedure to identify experimental conditions that minimize potentially incorrect interpretations caused by leaky Chrimson expression.

    View Publication Page
    05/09/22 | Gene structure-based homology search identifies highly divergent putative effector gene family.
    Stern DL, Han C
    Genome Biology and Evolution. 2022 May 09:. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evac069

    Homology of highly divergent genes often cannot be determined from sequence similarity alone. For example, we recently identified in the aphid Hormaphis cornu a family of rapidly evolving bicycle genes, which encode novel proteins implicated as plant gall effectors, and sequence similarity search methods yielded few putative bicycle homologs in other species. Coding sequence-independent features of genes, such as intron-exon boundaries, often evolve more slowly than coding sequences, however, and can provide complementary evidence for homology. We found that a linear logistic regression classifier using only structural features of bicycle genes identified many putative bicycle homologs in other species. Independent evidence from sequence features and intron locations supported homology assignments. To test the potential roles of bicycle genes in other aphids, we sequenced the genome of a second gall-forming aphid, Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, and found that many bicycle genes are strongly expressed in the salivary glands of the gall forming foundress. In addition, bicycle genes are strongly overexpressed in the salivary glands of a non-gall forming aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and in the non-gall forming generations of Hormaphis cornu. These observations suggest that Bicycle proteins may be used by multiple aphid species to manipulate plants in diverse ways. Incorporation of gene structural features into sequence search algorithms may aid identification of deeply divergent homologs, especially of rapidly evolving genes involved in host-parasite interactions.

    View Publication Page
    04/25/22 | Regulation of Drosophila courtship behavior by the Tlx/tailless-like nuclear receptor, dissatisfaction.
    Duckhorn JC, Cande J, Metkus MC, Song H, Altamirano S, Stern DL, Shirangi TR
    Current Biology. 2022 Apr 25;32(8):1703-1714. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2022.02.031

    Sexually dimorphic courtship behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster develop from the activity of the sexual differentiation genes, doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru), functioning with other regulatory factors that have received little attention. The dissatisfaction (dsf) gene encodes an orphan nuclear receptor homologous to vertebrate Tlx and Drosophila tailless that is critical for the development of several aspects of female- and male-specific sexual behaviors. Here, we report the pattern of dsf expression in the central nervous system and show that the activity of sexually dimorphic abdominal interneurons that co-express dsf and dsx is necessary and sufficient for vaginal plate opening in virgin females, ovipositor extrusion in mated females, and abdominal curling in males during courtship. We find that dsf activity results in different neuroanatomical outcomes in females and males, promoting and suppressing, respectively, female development and function of these neurons depending upon the sexual state of dsx expression. We posit that dsf and dsx interact to specify sex differences in the neural circuitry for dimorphic abdominal behaviors.

    View Publication Page
    03/07/22 | Neuromuscular embodiment of feedback control elements in Drosophila flight
    Samuel C. Whitehead , Sofia Leone , Theodore Lindsay , Matthew Meiselman , Noah Cowan , Michael Dickinson , Nilay Yapici , David Stern , Troy Shirangi , Itai Cohen
    bioRxiv. 2022 Mar 07:. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.22.481344

    While insects like Drosophila are flying, aerodynamic instabilities require that they make millisecond-timescale adjustments to their wing motion to stay aloft and on course. These stabilization reflexes can be modeled as a proportional-integral (PI) controller; however, it is unclear how such control might be instantiated in insects at the level of muscles and neurons. Here, we show that the b1 and b2 motor units—prominent components of the fly’s steering muscles system—modulate specific elements of the PI controller: the angular displacement (integral, I) and angular velocity (proportional, P), respectively. Moreover, these effects are observed only during the stabilization of pitch. Our results provide evidence for an organizational principle in which each muscle contributes to a specific functional role in flight control, a finding that highlights the power of using top-down behavioral modeling to guide bottom-up cellular manipulation studies.

    View Publication Page
    02/24/22 | Neuromuscular embodiment of feedback control elements in Drosophila flight.
    Samuel C Whitehead , Sofia Leone , Theodore Lindsay , Matthew R Meiselman , Noah Cowan , Michael H Dickinson , Nilay Yapici , David Stern , Troy Shirangi , Itai Cohen
    bioRxiv. 2022 Feb 24:. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.22.481344

    While insects like Drosophila are flying, aerodynamic instabilities require that they make millisecond-timescale adjustments to their wing motion to stay aloft and on course. These stabilization reflexes can be modeled as a proportional-integral (PI) controller; however, it is unclear how such control might be instantiated in insects at the level of muscles and neurons. Here, we show that the b1 and b2 motor units—prominent components of the fly's steering muscles system—modulate specific elements of the PI controller: the angular displacement (integral, I) and angular velocity (proportional, P), respectively. Moreover, these effects are observed only during the stabilization of pitch. Our results provide evidence for an organizational principle in which each muscle contributes to a specific functional role in flight control, a finding that highlights the power of using top-down behavioral modeling to guide bottom-up cellular manipulation studies.

    View Publication Page

    Perhaps the most valuable single set of resources for genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster is the collection of multiply-inverted chromosomes commonly known as balancer chromosomes. Balancers prevent the recovery of recombination exchange products within genomic regions included in inversions and allow perpetual maintenance of deleterious alleles in living stocks and the execution of complex genetic crosses. Balancer chromosomes have been generated traditionally by exposing animals to ionizing radiation and screening for altered chromosome structure or for unusual marker segregation patterns. These approaches are tedious and unpredictable, and have failed to produce the desired products in some species. Here I describe transgenic tools that allow targeted chromosome rearrangements in Drosophila species. The key new resources are engineered reporter genes containing introns with yeast recombination sites and enhancers that drive fluorescent reporter genes in multiple body regions. These tools were used to generate a doubly-inverted chromosome 3R in D. simulans that serves as an effective balancer chromosome.

    View Publication Page