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2127 Janelia Publications

Showing 31-40 of 2127 results
05/11/22 | Super-resolution microscopy reveals actomyosin dynamics in medioapical arrays.
Moore RP, Fogerson SM, Tulu US, Yu JW, Cox AH, Sican MA, Li D, Legant WR, Weigel AV, Crawford JM, Betzig E, Kiehart DP
Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2022 May 11:mbcE21110537. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E21-11-0537

Arrays of actin filaments (F-actin) near the apical surface of epithelial cells (medioapical arrays) contribute to apical constriction and morphogenesis throughout phylogeny. Here, super-resolution approaches (grazing incidence structured illumination, GI-SIM and lattice light sheet, LLSM) microscopy resolve individual, fluorescently labeled F-actin and bipolar myosin filaments that drive amnioserosa cell shape changes during dorsal closure in . In expanded cells, F-actin and myosin form loose, apically domed meshworks at the plasma membrane. The arrays condense as cells contract, drawing the domes into the plane of the junctional belts. As condensation continues, individual filaments are no longer uniformly apparent. As cells expand, arrays of actomyosin are again resolved - some F-actin turnover likely occurs, but a large fraction of existing filaments rearrange. In morphologically isotropic cells, actin filaments are randomly oriented and during contraction, are drawn together but remain essentially randomly oriented. In anisotropic cells, largely parallel actin filaments are drawn closer to one another. Our images offer unparalleled resolution of F-actin in embryonic tissue show that medioapical arrays are tightly apposed to the plasma membrane, are continuous with meshworks of lamellar F-actin and thereby constitute modified cell cortex. In concert with other tagged array components, super-resolution imaging of live specimens will offer new understanding of cortical architecture and function. [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text] [Media: see text].

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05/10/22 | Rescue of behavioral and electrophysiological phenotypes in a Pitt-Hopkins syndrome mouse model by genetic restoration of expression.
Kim H, Gao EB, Draper A, Berens NC, Vihma H, Zhang X, Higashi-Howard A, Ritola KD, Simon JM, Kennedy AJ, Philpot BD
eLife. 2022 May 10;11:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.72290

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by monoallelic mutation or deletion in the () gene. Individuals with PTHS typically present in the first year of life with developmental delay and exhibit intellectual disability, lack of speech, and motor incoordination. There are no effective treatments available for PTHS, but the root cause of the disorder, haploinsufficiency, suggests that it could be treated by normalizing gene expression. Here, we performed proof-of-concept viral gene therapy experiments using a conditional mouse model of PTHS and found that postnatally reinstating expression in neurons improved anxiety-like behavior, activity levels, innate behaviors, and memory. Postnatal reinstatement also partially corrected EEG abnormalities, which we characterized here for the first time, and the expression of key TCF4-regulated genes. Our results support a genetic normalization approach as a treatment strategy for PTHS, and possibly other TCF4-linked disorders.

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05/09/22 | Gene structure-based homology search identifies highly divergent putative effector gene family.
Stern DL, Han C
Genome Biology and Evolution. 2022 May 09:. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evac069

Homology of highly divergent genes often cannot be determined from sequence similarity alone. For example, we recently identified in the aphid Hormaphis cornu a family of rapidly evolving bicycle genes, which encode novel proteins implicated as plant gall effectors, and sequence similarity search methods yielded few putative bicycle homologs in other species. Coding sequence-independent features of genes, such as intron-exon boundaries, often evolve more slowly than coding sequences, however, and can provide complementary evidence for homology. We found that a linear logistic regression classifier using only structural features of bicycle genes identified many putative bicycle homologs in other species. Independent evidence from sequence features and intron locations supported homology assignments. To test the potential roles of bicycle genes in other aphids, we sequenced the genome of a second gall-forming aphid, Tetraneura nigriabdominalis, and found that many bicycle genes are strongly expressed in the salivary glands of the gall forming foundress. In addition, bicycle genes are strongly overexpressed in the salivary glands of a non-gall forming aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and in the non-gall forming generations of Hormaphis cornu. These observations suggest that Bicycle proteins may be used by multiple aphid species to manipulate plants in diverse ways. Incorporation of gene structural features into sequence search algorithms may aid identification of deeply divergent homologs, especially of rapidly evolving genes involved in host-parasite interactions.

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05/05/22 | Actin nano-architecture of phagocytic podosomes
J. Cody Herron , Shiqiong Hu , Takashi Watanabe , Ana T. Nogueira , Bei Liu , Megan Kern , Jesse Aaron , Aaron Taylor , Michael Pablo , Teng-Leong Chew , Timothy C. Elston , Klaus M. Hahn
bioRxiv. 2022 May 05:. doi: 10.1101/2022.05.04.490675

Podosomes are actin-enriched adhesion structures important for multiple cellular processes, including migration, bone remodeling, and phagocytosis. Here, we characterized the structure and organization of phagocytic podosomes using interferometric photoactivated localization microscopy (iPALM), a super-resolution microscopy technique capable of 15-20 nm resolution, together with structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and localization-based superresolution microscopy. Phagocytic podosomes were observed during frustrated phagocytosis, a model in which cells attempt to engulf micro-patterned IgG antibodies. For circular patterns, this resulted in regular arrays of podosomes with well-defined geometry. Using persistent homology, we developed a pipeline for semi-automatic identification and measurement of podosome features. These studies revealed an "hourglass" shape of the podosome actin core, a protruding "knob" at the bottom of the core, and two actin networks extending from the core. Additionally, the distributions of paxillin, talin, myosin II, α-actinin, cortactin, and microtubules relative to actin were characterized.

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05/01/22 | Cryo-EM structures of the human GATOR1-Rag-Ragulator complex reveal a spatial-constraint regulated GAP mechanism.
Egri SB, Ouch C, Chou H, Yu Z, Song K, Xu C, Shen K
Molecular Cell. 2022 May 01;36(1):. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2022.03.002

mTORC1 controls cellular metabolic processes in response to nutrient availability. Amino acid signals are transmitted to mTORC1 through the Rag GTPases, which are localized on the lysosomal surface by the Ragulator complex. The Rag GTPases receive amino acid signals from multiple upstream regulators. One negative regulator, GATOR1, is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for RagA. GATOR1 binds to the Rag GTPases via two modes: an inhibitory mode and a GAP mode. How these two binding interactions coordinate to process amino acid signals is unknown. Here, we resolved three cryo-EM structural models of the GATOR1-Rag-Ragulator complex, with the Rag-Ragulator subcomplex occupying the inhibitory site, the GAP site, and both binding sites simultaneously. When the Rag GTPases bind to GATOR1 at the GAP site, both Rag subunits contact GATOR1 to coordinate their nucleotide loading states. These results reveal a potential GAP mechanism of GATOR1 during the mTORC1 inactivation process.

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04/29/22 | Cryo-EM structure of the EBV ribonucleotide reductase BORF2 and mechanism of APOBEC3B inhibition.
Shaban NM, Yan R, Shi K, Moraes SN, Cheng AZ, Carpenter MA, McLellan JS, Yu Z, Harris RS
Science Advances. 2022 Apr 29;8(17):eabm2827. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abm2827

Viruses use a plethora of mechanisms to evade immune responses. A recent example is neutralization of the nuclear DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) ribonucleotide reductase subunit BORF2. Cryo-EM studies of APOBEC3B-BORF2 complexes reveal a large >1000-Å binding surface composed of multiple structural elements from each protein, which effectively blocks the APOBEC3B active site from accessing single-stranded DNA substrates. Evolutionary optimization is suggested by unique insertions in BORF2 absent from other ribonucleotide reductases and preferential binding to APOBEC3B relative to the highly related APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G enzymes. A molecular understanding of this pathogen-host interaction has potential to inform the development of drugs that block the interaction and liberate the natural antiviral activity of APOBEC3B. In addition, given a role for APOBEC3B in cancer mutagenesis, it may also be possible for information from the interaction to be used to develop DNA deaminase inhibitors.

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04/29/22 | The PV2 cluster of parvalbumin neurons in the murine periaqueductal gray: connections and gene expression.
Leemann S, Babalian A, Girard F, Davis F, Celio MR
Brain Structure and Function. 2022 Apr 29:. doi: 10.1007/s00429-022-02491-0

The PV2 (Celio 1990), a cluster of parvalbumin-positive neurons located in the ventromedial region of the distal periaqueductal gray (PAG) has not been previously described as its own entity, leading us to study its extent, connections, and gene expression. It is an oval, bilateral, elongated cluster composed of approximately 475 parvalbumin-expressing neurons in a single mouse hemisphere. In its anterior portion it impinges upon the paratrochlear nucleus (Par4) and in its distal portion it is harbored in the posterodorsal raphe nucleus (PDR). It is known to receive inputs from the orbitofrontal cortex and from the parvafox nucleus in the ventrolateral hypothalamus. Using anterograde tracing methods in parvalbumin-Cre mice, the main projections of the PV2 cluster innervate the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray (Su3) of the PAG, the parvafox nucleus of the lateral hypothalamus, the gemini nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus, the septal regions, and the diagonal band in the forebrain, as well as various nuclei within the reticular formation in the midbrain and brainstem. Within the brainstem, projections were discrete, but involved areas implicated in autonomic control. The PV2 cluster expressed various peptides and receptors, including the receptor for Adcyap1, a peptide secreted by one of its main afferences, namely, the parvafox nucleus. The expression of GAD1 and GAD2 in the region of the PV2, the presence of Vgat-1 in a subpopulation of PV2-neurons as well as the coexistence of GAD67 immunoreactivity with parvalbumin in terminal endings indicates the inhibitory nature of a subpopulation of PV2-neurons. The PV2 cluster may be part of a feedback controlling the activity of the hypothalamic parvafox and the Su3 nuclei in the periaqueductal gray.

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04/22/22 | Long-term imaging reveals behavioral plasticity during C. elegans dauer exit
Friedrich Preusser , Anika Neuschulz , Jan Philipp Junker , Nikolaus Rajewsky , Stephan Preibisch
bioRxiv. 2022 Apr 26:. doi: 10.1101/2022.04.25.489360

During their lifetime, animals must adapt their behavior to survive in changing environments. This ability requires the nervous system to adjust through dynamic expression of neurotransmitters and receptors but also through growth, spatial reorganization and connectivity while integrating external stimuli. For instance, despite having a fixed neuronal cell lineage, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans’ nervous system remains plastic throughout its development. Here, we focus on a specific example of nervous system plasticity, the C. elegans dauer exit decision. Under unfavorable conditions, larvae will enter the non-feeding and non-reproductive dauer stage and adapt their behavior to cope with a new environment. Upon improved conditions, this stress resistant developmental stage is actively reversed to resume reproductive development. However, how different environmental stimuli regulate the exit decision mechanism and thereby drive the larva’s behavioral change is unknown. To fill this gap, we developed a new open hardware method for long-term imaging (12h) of C. elegans larvae. We identified dauer-specific behavioral motifs and characterized the behavioral trajectory of dauer exit in different environments to identify key decision points. Combining long-term behavioral imaging with transcriptomics, we find that bacterial ingestion triggers a change in neuropeptide gene expression to establish post-dauer behavior. Taken together, we show how a developing nervous system can robustly integrate environmental changes, activate a developmental switch and adapt the organism’s behavior to a new environment.

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04/25/22 | Regulation of Drosophila courtship behavior by the Tlx/tailless-like nuclear receptor, dissatisfaction.
Duckhorn JC, Cande J, Metkus MC, Song H, Altamirano S, Stern DL, Shirangi TR
Current Biology. 2022 Apr 25;32(8):1703-1714. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2022.02.031

Sexually dimorphic courtship behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster develop from the activity of the sexual differentiation genes, doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru), functioning with other regulatory factors that have received little attention. The dissatisfaction (dsf) gene encodes an orphan nuclear receptor homologous to vertebrate Tlx and Drosophila tailless that is critical for the development of several aspects of female- and male-specific sexual behaviors. Here, we report the pattern of dsf expression in the central nervous system and show that the activity of sexually dimorphic abdominal interneurons that co-express dsf and dsx is necessary and sufficient for vaginal plate opening in virgin females, ovipositor extrusion in mated females, and abdominal curling in males during courtship. We find that dsf activity results in different neuroanatomical outcomes in females and males, promoting and suppressing, respectively, female development and function of these neurons depending upon the sexual state of dsx expression. We posit that dsf and dsx interact to specify sex differences in the neural circuitry for dimorphic abdominal behaviors.

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04/22/22 | ESCRT-mediated membrane repair protects tumor-derived cells against T cell attack.
Ritter AT, Shtengel G, Xu CS, Weigel A, Hoffman DP, Freeman M, Iyer N, Alivodej N, Ackerman D, Voskoboinik I, Trapani J, Hess HF, Mellman I
Science. 2022 Apr 22;376(6591):377-382. doi: 10.1126/science.abl3855

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer cells kill virus-infected and tumor cells through the polarized release of perforin and granzymes. Perforin is a pore-forming toxin that creates a lesion in the plasma membrane of the target cell through which granzymes enter the cytosol and initiate apoptosis. Endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins are involved in the repair of small membrane wounds. We found that ESCRT proteins were precisely recruited in target cells to sites of CTL engagement immediately after perforin release. Inhibition of ESCRT machinery in cancer-derived cells enhanced their susceptibility to CTL-mediated killing. Thus, repair of perforin pores by ESCRT machinery limits granzyme entry into the cytosol, potentially enabling target cells to resist cytolytic attack.

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