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1765 Janelia Publications

Showing 31-40 of 1765 results
04/13/20 | The Mushroom Body: From Architecture to Algorithm in a Learning Circuit.
Modi MN, Shuai Y, Turner GC
Annual Review of Neuroscience. 2020 Apr 13:. doi: 10.1146/annurev-neuro-080317-0621333

The brain contains a relatively simple circuit for forming Pavlovian associations, yet it achieves many operations common across memory systems. Recent advances have established a clear framework for learning and revealed the following key operations: ) pattern separation, whereby dense combinatorial representations of odors are preprocessed to generate highly specific, nonoverlapping odor patterns used for learning; ) convergence, in which sensory information is funneled to a small set of output neurons that guide behavioral actions; ) plasticity, where changing the mapping of sensory input to behavioral output requires a strong reinforcement signal, which is also modulated by internal state and environmental context; and ) modularization, in which a memory consists of multiple parallel traces, which are distinct in stability and flexibility and exist in anatomically well-defined modules within the network. Cross-module interactions allow for higher-order effects where past experience influences future learning. Many of these operations have parallels with processes of memory formation and action selection in more complex brains. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 43 is July 8, 2020. Please see for revised estimates.

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04/07/20 | Conservation and divergence of related neuronal lineages in the central brain.
Lee Y, Yang C, Miyares RL, Huang Y, He Y, Ren Q, Chen H, Kawase T, Ito M, Otsuna H, Sugino K, Aso Y, Ito K, Lee T
eLife. 2020 Apr 07;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.53518

Wiring a complex brain requires many neurons with intricate cell specificity, generated by a limited number of neural stem cells. central brain lineages are a predetermined series of neurons, born in a specific order. To understand how lineage identity translates to neuron morphology, we mapped 18 central brain lineages. While we found large aggregate differences between lineages, we also discovered shared patterns of morphological diversification. Lineage identity plus Notch-mediated sister fate govern primary neuron trajectories, whereas temporal fate diversifies terminal elaborations. Further, morphological neuron types may arise repeatedly, interspersed with other types. Despite the complexity, related lineages produce similar neuron types in comparable temporal patterns. Different stem cells even yield two identical series of dopaminergic neuron types, but with unrelated sister neurons. Together, these phenomena suggest that straightforward rules drive incredible neuronal complexity, and that large changes in morphology can result from relatively simple fating mechanisms.

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04/04/20 | Size-dependent secretory protein reflux into the cytosol in association with acute endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Lajoie P, Snapp EL
Traffic. 2020 Apr 04:. doi: 10.1111/tra.12729

Once secretory proteins have been targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen, the proteins typically remain partitioned from the cytosol. If the secretory proteins misfold, they can be unfolded and retrotranslocated into the cytosol for destruction by the proteasome by ER-associated protein Degradation (ERAD). Here, we report that correctly folded and targeted luminal ER fluorescent protein reporters accumulate in the cytosol during acute misfolded secretory protein stress in yeast. Photoactivation fluorescence microscopy experiments reveal that luminal reporters already localized to the ER relocalize to the cytosol, even in the absence of essential ERAD machinery. We named this process "ER reflux." Reflux appears to be regulated in a size-dependent manner for reporters. Interestingly, prior heat shock stress also prevents ER stress-induced reflux. Together, our findings establish a new ER stress-regulated pathway for relocalization of small luminal secretory proteins into the cytosol, distinct from the ERAD and pre-emptive quality control pathways. Importantly, our results highlight the value of fully characterizing the cell biology of reporters and describe a simple modification to maintain luminal ER reporters in the ER during acute ER stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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04/01/20 | 3D ATAC-PALM: super-resolution imaging of the accessible genome.
Xie L, Dong P, Chen X, Hsieh TS, Banala S, De Marzio M, English BP, Qi Y, Jung SK, Kieffer-Kwon K, Legant WR, Hansen AS, Schulmann A, Casellas R, Zhang B, Betzig E, Lavis LD, Chang HY, Tjian R, Liu Z
Nature Methods. 2020 Apr 01;17(4):430-6. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-0775-2

To image the accessible genome at nanometer scale in situ, we developed three-dimensional assay for transposase-accessible chromatin-photoactivated localization microscopy (3D ATAC-PALM) that integrates an assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with visualization, PALM super-resolution imaging and lattice light-sheet microscopy. Multiplexed with oligopaint DNA–fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), RNA–FISH and protein fluorescence, 3D ATAC-PALM connected microscopy and genomic data, revealing spatially segregated accessible chromatin domains (ACDs) that enclose active chromatin and transcribed genes. Using these methods to analyze genetically perturbed cells, we demonstrated that genome architectural protein CTCF prevents excessive clustering of accessible chromatin and decompacts ACDs. These results highlight 3D ATAC-PALM as a useful tool to probe the structure and organizing mechanism of the genome.

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03/31/20 | ER membranes exhibit phase behavior at sites of organelle contact.
King C, Sengupta P, Seo AY, Lippincott-Schwartz J
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2020 March 31;117(13):7225-7235. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1910854117

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of synthesis of secretory and membrane proteins and contacts every organelle of the cell, exchanging lipids and metabolites in a highly regulated manner. How the ER spatially segregates its numerous and diverse functions, including positioning nanoscopic contact sites with other organelles, is unclear. We demonstrate that hypotonic swelling of cells converts the ER and other membrane-bound organelles into micrometer-scale large intracellular vesicles (LICVs) that retain luminal protein content and maintain contact sites with each other through localized organelle tethers. Upon cooling, ER-derived LICVs phase-partition into microscopic domains having different lipid-ordering characteristics, which is reversible upon warming. Ordered ER lipid domains mark contact sites with ER and mitochondria, lipid droplets, endosomes, or plasma membrane, whereas disordered ER lipid domains mark contact sites with lysosomes or peroxisomes. Tethering proteins concentrate at ER–organelle contact sites, allowing time-dependent behavior of lipids and proteins to be studied at these sites. These findings demonstrate that LICVs provide a useful model system for studying the phase behavior and interactive properties of organelles in intact cells.

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03/27/20 | Unc-4 acts to promote neuronal identity and development of the take-off circuit in the Drosophila CNS.
Lacin H, Williamson WR, Card GM, Skeath JB, Truman JW
eLife. 2020 Mar 27;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.55007
03/24/20 | Correcting for physical distortions in visual stimuli improves reproducibility in zebrafish neuroscience.
Dunn TW, Fitzgerald JE
eLife. 2020 Mar 24;9:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.53684

Breakthrough technologies for monitoring and manipulating single-neuron activity provide unprecedented opportunities for whole-brain neuroscience in larval zebrafish1–9. Understanding the neural mechanisms of visually guided behavior also requires precise stimulus control, but little prior research has accounted for physical distortions that result from refraction and reflection at an air-water interface that usually separates the projected stimulus from the fish10–12. Here we provide a computational tool that transforms between projected and received stimuli in order to detect and control these distortions. The tool considers the most commonly encountered interface geometry, and we show that this and other common configurations produce stereotyped distortions. By correcting these distortions, we reduced discrepancies in the literature concerning stimuli that evoke escape behavior13,14, and we expect this tool will help reconcile other confusing aspects of the literature. This tool also aids experimental design, and we illustrate the dangers that uncorrected stimuli pose to receptive field mapping experiments.

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03/23/20 | Neuronal upregulation of Prospero protein is driven by alternative mRNA polyadenylation and Syncrip-mediated mRNA stabilisation.
Samuels TJ, Arava Y, Järvelin AI, Robertson F, Lee JY, Yang L, Yang C, Lee T, Ish-Horowicz D, Davis I
Biology Open. 2020 Mar 23:. doi: 10.1242/bio.049684

During and vertebrate brain development, the conserved transcription factor Prospero/Prox1 is an important regulator of the transition between proliferation and differentiation. Prospero level is low in neural stem cells and their immediate progeny, but is upregulated in larval neurons and it is unknown how this process is controlled. Here, we use single molecule fluorescent hybridisation to show that larval neurons selectively transcribe a long mRNA isoform containing a 15 kb 3' untranslated region, which is bound in the brain by the conserved RNA-binding protein Syncrip/hnRNPQ. Syncrip binding increases the mRNA stability of the long isoform, which allows an upregulation of Prospero protein production. Adult flies selectively lacking the long isoform show abnormal behaviour that could result from impaired locomotor or neurological activity. Our findings highlight a regulatory strategy involving alternative polyadenylation followed by differential post-transcriptional regulation.

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03/23/20 | Recurrent architecture for adaptive regulation of learning in the insect brain.
Eschbach C, Fushiki A, Winding M, Schneider-Mizell CM, Shao M, Arruda R, Eichler K, Valdes-Aleman J, Ohyama T, Thum AS, Gerber B, Fetter RD, Truman JW, Litwin-Kumar A, Cardona A, Zlatic M, Cardona A, Zlatic M
Nature Neuroscience. 2020 Mar 23;23(4):544-55. doi: 10.1038/s41593-020-0607-9

Dopaminergic neurons (DANs) drive learning across the animal kingdom, but the upstream circuits that regulate their activity and thereby learning remain poorly understood. We provide a synaptic-resolution connectome of the circuitry upstream of all DANs in a learning center, the mushroom body of Drosophila larva. We discover afferent sensory pathways and a large population of neurons that provide feedback from mushroom body output neurons and link distinct memory systems (aversive and appetitive). We combine this with functional studies of DANs and their presynaptic partners and with comprehensive circuit modeling. We find that DANs compare convergent feedback from aversive and appetitive systems, which enables the computation of integrated predictions that may improve future learning. Computational modeling reveals that the discovered feedback motifs increase model flexibility and performance on learning tasks. Our study provides the most detailed view to date of biological circuit motifs that support associative learning.

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03/18/20 | CAMIO: a transgenic CRISPR pipeline to create diverse targeted genome deletions in Drosophila.
Chen H, Marques JG, Sugino K, Wei D, Miyares RL, Lee T
Nucleic Acids Research. 2020 Mar 18:. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa177

The genome is the blueprint for an organism. Interrogating the genome, especially locating critical cis-regulatory elements, requires deletion analysis. This is conventionally performed using synthetic constructs, making it cumbersome and non-physiological. Thus, we created Cas9-mediated Arrayed Mutagenesis of Individual Offspring (CAMIO) to achieve comprehensive analysis of a targeted region of native DNA. CAMIO utilizes CRISPR that is spatially restricted to generate independent deletions in the intact Drosophila genome. Controlled by recombination, a single guide RNA is stochastically chosen from a set targeting a specific DNA region. Combining two sets increases variability, leading to either indels at 1-2 target sites or inter-target deletions. Cas9 restriction to male germ cells elicits autonomous double-strand-break repair, consequently creating offspring with diverse mutations. Thus, from a single population cross, we can obtain a deletion matrix covering a large expanse of DNA at both coarse and fine resolution. We demonstrate the ease and power of CAMIO by mapping 5'UTR sequences crucial for chinmo's post-transcriptional regulation.

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