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1702 Janelia Publications

Showing 41-50 of 1702 results
11/18/19 | Spatiotemporal constraints on optogenetic inactivation in cortical circuits.
Li N, Chen S, Guo ZV, Chen H, Huo Y, Inagaki HK, Chen G, Davis C, Hansel D, Guo C, Svoboda K
eLife. 2019 Nov 18;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.48622

Optogenetics allows manipulations of genetically and spatially defined neuronal populations with excellent temporal control. However, neurons are coupled with other neurons over multiple length scales, and the effects of localized manipulations thus spread beyond the targeted neurons. We benchmarked several optogenetic methods to inactivate small regions of neocortex. Optogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons produced more effective inactivation than light-gated ion pumps. Transgenic mice expressing the light-dependent chloride channel GtACR1 produced the most potent inactivation. Generally, inactivation spread substantially beyond the photostimulation light, caused by strong coupling between cortical neurons. Over some range of light intensity, optogenetic excitation of inhibitory neurons reduced activity in these neurons, together with pyramidal neurons, a signature of inhibition-stabilized neural networks ('paradoxical effect'). The offset of optogenetic inactivation was followed by rebound excitation in a light dose-dependent manner, limiting temporal resolution. Our data offer guidance for the design of optogenetics experiments.

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11/14/19 | Nitric oxide acts as a cotransmitter in a subset of dopaminergic neurons to diversify memory dynamics.
Aso Y, Ray RP, Long X, Bushey D, Cichewicz K, Ngo T, Sharp B, Christoforou C, Hu A, Lemire AL, Tillberg P, Hirsh J, Litwin-Kumar A, Rubin GM
eLife. 2019 Nov 14;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.49257

Animals employ diverse learning rules and synaptic plasticity dynamics to record temporal and statistical information about the world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this diversity are poorly understood. The anatomically defined compartments of the insect mushroom body function as parallel units of associative learning, with different learning rates, memory decay dynamics and flexibility (Aso & Rubin 2016). Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a neurotransmitter in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in . NO's effects develop more slowly than those of dopamine and depend on soluble guanylate cyclase in postsynaptic Kenyon cells. NO acts antagonistically to dopamine; it shortens memory retention and facilitates the rapid updating of memories. The interplay of NO and dopamine enables memories stored in local domains along Kenyon cell axons to be specialized for predicting the value of odors based only on recent events. Our results provide key mechanistic insights into how diverse memory dynamics are established in parallel memory systems.

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11/12/19 | Biosensors show the pharmacokinetics of S-Ketamine in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Bera K, Kamajaya A, Shivange AV, Muthusamy AK, Nichols AL, Borden PM, Grant S, Jeon J, Lin E, Bishara I, Chin TM, Cohen BN, Kim CH, Unger EK, Tian L, Marvin JS, Looger LL, Lester HA
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 2019 Nov 12;13:499. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2019.00499

The target for the "rapid" (<24 h) antidepressant effects of S-ketamine is unknown, vitiating programs to rationally develop more effective rapid antidepressants. To describe a drug's target, one must first understand the compartments entered by the drug, at all levels-the organ, the cell, and the organelle. We have, therefore, developed molecular tools to measure the subcellular, organellar pharmacokinetics of S-ketamine. The tools are genetically encoded intensity-based S-ketamine-sensing fluorescent reporters, iSKetSnFR1 and iSKetSnFR2. In solution, these biosensors respond to S-ketamine with a sensitivity, S-slope = delta(F/F)/(delta[S-ketamine]) of 0.23 and 1.9/μM, respectively. The iSKetSnFR2 construct allows measurements at <0.3 μM S-ketamine. The iSKetSnFR1 and iSKetSnFR2 biosensors display >100-fold selectivity over other ligands tested, including R-ketamine. We targeted each of the sensors to either the plasma membrane (PM) or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Measurements on these biosensors expressed in Neuro2a cells and in human dopaminergic neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show that S-ketamine enters the ER within a few seconds after appearing in the external solution near the PM, then leaves as rapidly after S-ketamine is removed from the extracellular solution. In cells, S-slopes for the ER and PM-targeted sensors differ by <2-fold, indicating that the ER [S-ketamine] is less than 2-fold different from the extracellular [S-ketamine]. Organelles represent potential compartments for the engagement of S-ketamine with its antidepressant target, and potential S-ketamine targets include organellar ion channels, receptors, and transporters.

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Bock Lab
11/06/19 | A neural circuit arbitrates between persistence and withdrawal in hungry drosophila.
Sayin S, De Backer J, Siju KP, Wosniack ME, Lewis LP, Frisch L, Gansen B, Schlegel P, Edmondson-Stait A, Sharifi N, Fisher CB, Calle-Schuler SA, Lauritzen JS, Bock DD, Costa M, Jefferis GS, Gjorgjieva J, Grunwald Kadow IC
Neuron. 2019 Nov 6;104(3):544-58. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.07.028

In pursuit of food, hungry animals mobilize significant energy resources and overcome exhaustion and fear. How need and motivation control the decision to continue or change behavior is not understood. Using a single fly treadmill, we show that hungry flies persistently track a food odor and increase their effort over repeated trials in the absence of reward suggesting that need dominates negative experience. We further show that odor tracking is regulated by two mushroom body output neurons (MBONs) connecting the MB to the lateral horn. These MBONs, together with dopaminergic neurons and Dop1R2 signaling, control behavioral persistence. Conversely, an octopaminergic neuron, VPM4, which directly innervates one of the MBONs, acts as a brake on odor tracking by connecting feeding and olfaction. Together, our data suggest a function for the MB in internal state-dependent expression of behavior that can be suppressed by external inputs conveying a competing behavioral drive.

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11/06/19 | Interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-γ control selection of amacrine neurons in color vision circuits.
Menon KP, Kulkarni V, Takemura S, Anaya M, Zinn K
eLife. 2019 Nov 06;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.48935

R7 UV photoreceptors (PRs) are divided into yellow (y) and pale (p) subtypes. yR7 PRs express the Dpr11 cell surface protein and are presynaptic to Dm8 amacrine neurons (yDm8) that express Dpr11's binding partner DIP-g, while pR7 PRs synapse onto DIP-g-negative pDm8. Dpr11 and DIP-g expression patterns define 'yellow' and 'pale' color vision circuits. We examined Dm8 neurons in these circuits by electron microscopic reconstruction and expansion microscopy. and mutations affect the morphologies of yDm8 distal ('home column') dendrites. yDm8 neurons are generated in excess during development and compete for presynaptic yR7 PRs, and interactions between Dpr11 and DIP-g are required for yDm8 survival. These interactions also allow yDm8 neurons to select yR7 PRs as their appropriate home column partners. yDm8 and pDm8 neurons do not normally compete for survival signals or R7 partners, but can be forced to do so by manipulation of R7 subtype fate.

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11/04/19 | Zebrafish neuroscience: Using artificial neural networks to help understand brains.
Ahrens MB
Current Biology. 2019 Nov 04;29(21):R1138-R1140. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.09.039

Brains are notoriously hard to understand, and neuroscientists need all the tools they can get their hands on to have a realistic shot at it. Advances in machine learning are proving instrumental, illustrated by their recent use to shed light on navigational strategies implemented by zebrafish brains.

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11/01/19 | Dual-plane 3-photon microscopy with remote focusing.
Takasaki KT, Tsyboulski D, Waters J
Biomedical Optics Express. 2019 Nov 1;10(11):5585-5599. doi: 10.1364/BOE.10.005585

3-photon excitation enables fluorescence microscopy deep in densely labeled and highly scattering samples. To date, 3-photon excitation has been restricted to scanning a single focus, limiting the speed of volume acquisition. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we implemented and characterized dual-plane 3-photon microscopy with temporal multiplexing and remote focusing, and performed simultaneous calcium imaging of two planes beyond 600 µm deep in the cortex of a pan-excitatory GCaMP6s transgenic mouse with a per-plane framerate of 7 Hz and an effective 2 MHz laser repetition rate. This method is a straightforward and generalizable modification to single-focus 3PE systems, doubling the rate of volume (column) imaging with off-the-shelf components and minimal technical constraints.

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10/31/19 | ShuTu: Open-source software for efficient and accurate reconstruction of dendritic morphology.
Jin DZ, Zhao T, Hunt DL, Tillage RP, Hsu C, Spruston N
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics. 2019 Oct 31;13:68. doi: 10.3389/fninf.2019.00068

Neurons perform computations by integrating inputs from thousands of synapses-mostly in the dendritic tree-to drive action potential firing in the axon. One fruitful approach to studying this process is to record from neurons using patch-clamp electrodes, fill the recorded neurons with a substance that allows subsequent staining, reconstruct the three-dimensional architectures of the dendrites, and use the resulting functional and structural data to develop computer models of dendritic integration. Accurately producing quantitative reconstructions of dendrites is typically a tedious process taking many hours of manual inspection and measurement. Here we present ShuTu, a new software package that facilitates accurate and efficient reconstruction of dendrites imaged using bright-field microscopy. The program operates in two steps: (1) automated identification of dendritic processes, and (2) manual correction of errors in the automated reconstruction. This approach allows neurons with complex dendritic morphologies to be reconstructed rapidly and efficiently, thus facilitating the use of computer models to study dendritic structure-function relationships and the computations performed by single neurons.

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10/30/19 | Functional clustering of dendritic activity during decision-making.
Kerlin A, Boaz M, Flickinger D, MacLennan BJ, Dean MB, Davis C, Spruston N, Svoboda K
Elife. 2019 Oct 30;8:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.46966

The active properties of dendrites can support local nonlinear operations, but previous imaging and electrophysiological measurements have produced conflicting views regarding the prevalence and selectivity of local nonlinearities in vivo. We imaged calcium signals in pyramidal cell dendrites in the motor cortex of mice performing a tactile decision task. A custom microscope allowed us to image the soma and up to 300 μm of contiguous dendrite at 15 Hz, while resolving individual spines. New analysis methods were used to estimate the frequency and spatial scales of activity in dendritic branches and spines. The majority of dendritic calcium transients were coincident with global events. However, task-associated calcium signals in dendrites and spines were compartmentalized by dendritic branching and clustered within branches over approximately 10 μm. Diverse behavior-related signals were intermingled and distributed throughout the dendritic arbor, potentially supporting a large learning capacity in individual neurons.

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10/23/19 | Recruitment of GABAergic interneurons in the barrel cortex during active tactile behavior.
Yu J, Hu H, Agmon A, Svoboda K
Neuron. 2019 Oct 23;104(2):412-27. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.07.027

Neural computation involves diverse types of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that are integrated with excitatory (E) neurons into precisely structured circuits. To understand how each neuron type shapes sensory representations, we measured firing patterns of defined types of neurons in the barrel cortex while mice performed an active, whisker-dependent object localization task. Touch excited fast-spiking (FS) interneurons at short latency, followed by activation of E neurons and somatostatin-expressing (SST) interneurons. Touch only weakly modulated vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP) interneurons. Voluntary whisker movement activated FS neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) target layers, a subset of SST neurons and a majority of VIP neurons. Together, FS neurons track thalamic input, mediating feedforward inhibition. SST neurons monitor local excitation, providing feedback inhibition. VIP neurons are activated by non-sensory inputs, disinhibiting E and FS neurons. Our data reveal rules of recruitment for interneuron types during behavior, providing foundations for understanding computation in cortical microcircuits.

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