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1457 Janelia Publications

Showing 41-50 of 1457 results
10/03/18 | A toolbox for multiplexed super-resolution imaging of the E. coli nucleoid and membrane using novel PAINT labels.
Spahn CK, Glaesmann M, Grimm JB, Ayala AX, Lavis LD, Heilemann M
Scientific Reports. 2018 Oct 03;8(1):14768. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33052-3

Maintenance of the bacterial homeostasis initially emanates from interactions between proteins and the bacterial nucleoid. Investigating their spatial correlation requires high spatial resolution, especially in tiny, highly confined and crowded bacterial cells. Here, we present super-resolution microscopy using a palette of fluorescent labels that bind transiently to either the membrane or the nucleoid of fixed E. coli cells. The presented labels are easily applicable, versatile and allow long-term single-molecule super-resolution imaging independent of photobleaching. The different spectral properties allow for multiplexed imaging in combination with other localisation-based super-resolution imaging techniques. As examples for applications, we demonstrate correlated super-resolution imaging of the bacterial nucleoid with the position of genetic loci, of nascent DNA in correlation to the entire nucleoid, and of the nucleoid of metabolically arrested cells. We furthermore show that DNA- and membrane-targeting labels can be combined with photoactivatable fluorescent proteins and visualise the nano-scale distribution of RNA polymerase relative to the nucleoid in drug-treated E. coli cells.

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10/03/18 | moxMaple3: a photoswitchable fluorescent protein for PALM and protein highlighting in oxidizing cellular environments.
Kaberniuk AA, Mohr MA, Verkhusha VV, Snapp EL
Scientific Reports. 2018 Oct 03;8(1):14738. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32955-5

The ability of fluorescent proteins (FPs) to fold robustly is fundamental to the autocatalytic formation of the chromophore. While the importance of the tertiary protein structure is well appreciated, the impact of individual amino acid mutations for FPs is often not intuitive and requires direct testing. In this study, we describe the engineering of a monomeric photoswitchable FP, moxMaple3, for use in oxidizing cellular environments, especially the eukaryotic secretory pathway. Surprisingly, a point mutation to replace a cysteine substantially improved the yield of correctly folded FP capable of chromophore formation, regardless of cellular environment. The improved folding of moxMaple3 increases the fraction of visibly tagged fusion proteins, as well as FP performance in PALM super-resolution microscopy, and thus makes moxMaple3 a robust monomeric FP choice for PALM and optical highlighting applications.

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10/02/18 | Integrin-mediated attachment of the blastoderm to the vitelline envelope impacts gastrulation of insects.
Muenster S, Jain A, Mietke A, Pavlopoulos A, Grill SW, Tomancak P
bioRxiv. 2018 Oct 2:. doi: 10.1101/421701

During gastrulation, physical forces reshape the simple embryonic tissue to form a complex body plan of multicellular organisms. These forces often cause large-scale asymmetric movements of the embryonic tissue. In many embryos, the tissue undergoing gastrulation movements is surrounded by a rigid protective shell. While it is well recognized that gastrulation movements depend on forces generated by tissue-intrinsic contractility, it is not known if interactions between the tissue and the protective shell provide additional forces that impact gastrulation. Here we show that a particular part of the blastoderm tissue of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum tightly adheres in a temporally coordinated manner to the vitelline envelope surrounding the embryo. This attachment generates an additional force that counteracts the tissue-intrinsic contractile forces to create asymmetric tissue movements. Furthermore, this localized attachment is mediated by a specific integrin, and its knock-down leads to a gastrulation phenotype consistent with complete loss of attachment. Moreover, analysis of another integrin in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster suggests that gastrulation in this organism also relies on adhesion between the blastoderm and the vitelline. Together, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism whereby the spatiotemporal pattern of tissue adhesion to the vitelline envelope provides controllable counter-forces that shape gastrulation movements in insects.

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09/21/18 | Cryo-EM analysis of the T3S injectisome reveals the structure of the needle and open secretin.
Hu J, Worrall LJ, Hong C, Vuckovic M, Atkinson CE, Caveney N, Yu Z, Strynadka NC
Nature Communications. 2018 Sep 21;9(1):3840. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-06298-8

The bacterial type III secretion system, or injectisome, is a syringe shaped nanomachine essential for the virulence of many disease causing Gram-negative bacteria. At the core of the injectisome structure is the needle complex, a continuous channel formed by the highly oligomerized inner and outer membrane hollow rings and a polymerized helical needle filament which spans through and projects into the infected host cell. Here we present the near-atomic resolution structure of a needle complex from the prototypical Salmonella Typhimurium SPI-1 type III secretion system, with local masking protocols allowing for model building and refinement of the major membrane spanning components of the needle complex base in addition to an isolated needle filament. This work provides significant insight into injectisome structure and assembly and importantly captures the molecular basis for substrate induced gating in the giant outer membrane secretin portal family.

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09/19/18 | Communication from learned to innate olfactory processing centers is required for memory retrieval in Drosophila.
Dolan M, Belliart-Guérin G, Bates AS, Frechter S, Lampin-Saint-Amaux A, Aso Y, Roberts RJ, Schlegel P, Wong A, Hammad A, Bock D, Rubin GM, Preat T, Placais P, Jefferis GS
Neuron. 2018 Sep 19;100(3):651-68. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.08.037

The behavioral response to a sensory stimulus may depend on both learned and innate neuronal representations. How these circuits interact to produce appropriate behavior is unknown. In Drosophila, the lateral horn (LH) and mushroom body (MB) are thought to mediate innate and learned olfactory behavior, respectively, although LH function has not been tested directly. Here we identify two LH cell types (PD2a1 and PD2b1) that receive input from an MB output neuron required for recall of aversive olfactory memories. These neurons are required for aversive memory retrieval and modulated by training. Connectomics data demonstrate that PD2a1 and PD2b1 neurons also receive direct input from food odor-encoding neurons. Consistent with this, PD2a1 and PD2b1 are also necessary for unlearned attraction to some odors, indicating that these neurons have a dual behavioral role. This provides a circuit mechanism by which learned and innate olfactory information can interact in identified neurons to produce appropriate behavior.

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09/17/18 | Strength of correlations in strongly recurrent neuronal networks.
Darshan R, van Vreeswijk C, Hansel D
Physical Review X. 2018 Sep 17:031072. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevX.8.031072

Spatiotemporal correlations in brain activity are functionally important and have been implicated in perception, learning and plasticity, exploratory behavior, and various aspects of cognition. Neurons in the cerebral cortex are strongly interacting. Their activity is temporally irregular and can exhibit substantial correlations. However, how the collective dynamics of highly recurrent and strongly interacting neurons can evolve into a state in which the activity of individual cells is highly irregular yet macroscopically correlated is an open question. Here, we develop a general theory that relates the strength of pairwise correlations to the anatomical features of networks of strongly coupled neurons. To this end, we investigate networks of binary units. When interactions are strong, the activity is irregular in a large region of parameter space. We find that despite the strong interactions, the correlations are generally very weak. Nevertheless, we identify architectural features, which if present, give rise to strong correlations without destroying the irregularity of the activity. For networks with such features, we determine how correlations scale with the network size and the number of connections. Our work shows the mechanism by which strong correlations can be consistent with highly irregular activity, two hallmarks of neuronal dynamics in the central nervous system.

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09/14/18 | Probing synaptic transmission and behavior in Drosophila with optogenetics: a laboratory exercise
Vilinksy I, Hibbard KL, Johnson Bruce R , Deitcher DL
Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education. 2018 Summer;16(3):A289-95

Optogenetics is possibly the most revolutionary advance in neuroscience research techniques within the last decade. Here, we describe lab modules, presented at a workshop for undergraduate neuroscience educators, using optogenetic control of neurons in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is a genetically accessible model system that combines behavioral and neurophysiological complexity, ease of use, and high research relevance. One lab module utilized two transgenic Drosophila strains, each activating specific circuits underlying startle behavior and backwards locomotion, respectively. The red-shifted channelrhodopsin, CsChrimson, was expressed in neurons sharing a common transcriptional profile, with the expression pattern further refined by the use of a Split GAL4 intersectional activation system. Another set of strains was used to investigate synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction. These expressed Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) in glutamatergic neurons, including the motor neurons. The first strain expressed ChR2 in a wild type background, while the second contained the SNAP-25ts mutant allele, which confers heightened evoked potential amplitude and greatly increased spontaneous vesicle release frequency at the larval neuromuscular junction. These modules introduced educators and students to the use of optogenetic stimulation to control behavior and evoked release at a model synapse, and establish a basis for students to explore neurophysiology using this technique, through recapitulating classic experiments and conducting independent research. 

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09/12/18 | Speed dependent descending control of freezing behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.
Zacarias R, Namiki S, Card GM, Vasconcelos ML, Moita MA
Nature Communications. 2018 Sep 12;9(1):3697. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-05875-1

The most fundamental choice an animal has to make when it detects a threat is whether to freeze, reducing its chances of being noticed, or to flee to safety. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster exposed to looming stimuli in a confined arena either freeze or flee. The probability of freezing versus fleeing is modulated by the fly's walking speed at the time of threat, demonstrating that freeze/flee decisions depend on behavioral state. We describe a pair of descending neurons crucially implicated in freezing. Genetic silencing of DNp09 descending neurons disrupts freezing yet does not prevent fleeing. Optogenetic activation of both DNp09 neurons induces running and freezing in a state-dependent manner. Our findings establish walking speed as a key factor in defensive response choices and reveal a pair of descending neurons as a critical component in the circuitry mediating selection and execution of freezing or fleeing behaviors.

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09/06/18 | 4D cell biology: big data image analytics and lattice light-sheet imaging reveal dynamics of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in stem cell derived intestinal organoids.
Schöneberg J, Dambournet D, Liu T, Forster R, Hockemeyer D, Betzig E, Drubin DG
Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2018 Sep 06:mbcE18060375. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E18-06-0375

New methods in stem cell 3D organoid tissue culture, advanced imaging and big data image analytics now allow tissue scale 4D cell biology, but currently available analytical pipelines are inadequate for handing and analyzing the resulting gigabytes and terabytes of high-content imaging data. We expressed fluorescent protein fusions of clathrin and dynamin2 at endogenous levels in genome-edited human embryonic stem cells, which were differentiated into hESC-derived intestinal epithelial organoids. Lattice Light-Sheet Imaging with adaptive optics (AO-LLSM) allowed us to image large volumes of these organoids (70µm x 60µm x 40µm xyz) at 5.7s/frame. We developed an open source data analysis package termed pyLattice to process the resulting large (∼60Gb) movie datasets and to track clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) events. CME tracks could be recorded from ∼35 cells at a time, resulting in ∼4000 processed tracks per movie. Based on their localization in the organoid, we classified CME tracks into apical, lateral and basal events and found that CME dynamics are similar for all three classes, despite reported differences in membrane tension. pyLattice coupled with AO-LLSM makes possible quantitative, high temporal and spatial resolution analysis of subcellular events within tissues. Movie S1 Movie S1 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid showing clathrin (red) and dynamin2 (green) puncta in surface depiction. The movie zooms out from a single clathrin mediated endocytosis event that shows both clathrin and dynamin2 at the same location to eventually show the whole AO-LLSM field of view. Nuclear envelopes and the outer membranes of the tissue are depicted in transparent white. Movie S2 Movie S2 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid showing clathrin (red) and dynamin2 (green) puncta in surface depiction. The movie rotates the AO-LLSM field of view. Nuclear envelopes and the outer membranes of the tissue are depicted in transparent white. Movie S3 Movie S3 Thresholded 3D AO-LLSM data of an intestinal epithelial organoid. The curved surface is of the spherical organoid is visible as the movie rotates. Clathrin puncta are visible throughout the tissue (white). Movie S4 Movie S4 The detection step in the data processing pipeline retrieves all clathrin puncta in the volume. Detected puncta are marked with a cube (blue). Movie S5 Movie S5 Zoom on one clathrin puncta in the thresholded 3D dataset. The punctum of interest is marked with a blue cube. Other puncta are also visible. Movie S6 Movie S6 Zoom on the same clathrin puncta as in M3 in non-thresholded 3D data. The surrounding fluorescence is visible as a transparent cloud.

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09/06/18 | Integration of parallel opposing memories underlies memory extinction.
Felsenberg J, Jacob PF, Walker T, Barnstedt O, Edmondson-Stait AJ, Pleijzier MW, Otto N, Schlegel P, Sharifi N, Perisse E, Smith CS, Lauritzen JS, Costa M, Jefferis GS, Bock DD, Waddell S
Cell. 2018 Sep 06;175(3):709-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.021

Accurately predicting an outcome requires that animals learn supporting and conflicting evidence from sequential experience. In mammals and invertebrates, learned fear responses can be suppressed by experiencing predictive cues without punishment, a process called memory extinction. Here, we show that extinction of aversive memories in Drosophila requires specific dopaminergic neurons, which indicate that omission of punishment is remembered as a positive experience. Functional imaging revealed co-existence of intracellular calcium traces in different places in the mushroom body output neuron network for both the original aversive memory and a new appetitive extinction memory. Light and ultrastructural anatomy are consistent with parallel competing memories being combined within mushroom body output neurons that direct avoidance. Indeed, extinction-evoked plasticity in a pair of these neurons neutralizes the potentiated odor response imposed in the network by aversive learning. Therefore, flies track the accuracy of learned expectations by accumulating and integrating memories of conflicting events.

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