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Pavlopoulos Lab / Publications
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16 Publications

Showing 1-10 of 16 results
02/28/17 | Reconstruction of cell lineages and behaviors underlying arthropod limb outgrowth with multi-view light-sheet imaging and tracking.
Wolff C, Tinevez J, Pietzsch T, Stamataki E, Harich B, Preibisch S, Shorte S, Keller PJ, Tomancak P, Pavlopoulos A
BioRxiv. 2017 Feb 28:. doi: 10.1101/112623

During development coordinated cell behaviors orchestrate tissue and organ morphogenesis to suit the lifestyle of the organism. We have used here the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis to study the cellular basis of limb development. Transgenic Parhyale embryos with fluorescently labeled nuclei were imaged at high spatiotemporal resolution with multi-view light-sheet fluorescence microscopy over several days of embryogenesis spanning appendage morphogenesis from early specification up to late differentiation stages. Cell tracking with a new tool called Massive Multi-view Tracker (MaMuT) enabled the reconstruction of the complete cell lineage of an outgrowing thoracic limb with single-cell resolution. In silico clonal analyses suggested that the limb primordium becomes subdivided from an early stage first into anterior-posterior and then into dorsal-ventral compartments whose boundaries intersect at the distal tip of the growing limb. Limb bud formation is associated with the spatial modulation of cell proliferation, while limb elongation is also driven by the preferential orientation of division of epidermal cells along the proximal-distal axis of growth. Cellular reconstructions were predictive of the expression patterns of limb development genes including the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) morphogen.

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11/16/16 | The genome of the crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: a model for animal development, regeneration, immunity and lignocellulose digestion.
Kao D, Lai AG, Stamataki E, Rosic S, Konstantinides N, Jarvis E, Di Donfrancesco A, Pouchkina-Stantcheva N, Semon M, Grillo M, Bruce H, Kumar S, Siwanowicz I, Le A, Lemire A, Extavour C, Browne W, Wolff C, Averof M, et al
eLife. 2016 Nov 16:. doi: 10.7554/eLife.20062

Parhyale hawaiensis is a blossoming model system for studies of developmental mechanisms and more recently adult regeneration. We have sequenced the genome allowing annotation of all key signaling pathways, small non-coding RNAs and transcription factors that will enhance ongoing functional studies. Parhayle is a member of the Malacostraca, which includes crustacean food crop species. We analysed the immunity related genes of Parhyale as an important comparative system for these species, where immunity related aquaculture problems have increased as farming has intensified. We also find that Parhyale and other species within Multicrustacea contain the enzyme sets necessary to perform lignocellulose digestion (wood eating), suggesting this ability may predate the diversification of this lineage. Our data provide an essential resource for further development of the Parhyale model. The first Malacostracan genome sequence will underpin ongoing comparative work in important food crop species and research investigating lignocellulose as energy source.

Publication first appeared in BioRxiv on August 2, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/065789

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07/28/16 | Non-insect crustacean models in developmental genetics including an encomium to Parhyale hawaiensis.
Stamataki E, Pavlopoulos A
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 2016 Jul 28;39:149-156. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2016.07.004

The impressive diversity of body plans, lifestyles and segmental specializations exhibited by crustaceans (barnacles, copepods, shrimps, crabs, lobsters and their kin) provides great material to address longstanding questions in evolutionary developmental biology. Recent advances in forward and reverse genetics and in imaging approaches applied in the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis and other emerging crustacean model species have made it possible to probe the molecular and cellular basis of crustacean diversity. A number of biological and technical qualities like the slow tempo and holoblastic cleavage mode, the stereotypy of many cellular processes, the functional and morphological diversity of limbs along the body axis, and the availability of various experimental manipulations, have made Parhyale a powerful system to study normal development and regeneration.

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05/18/16 | Toll genes have an ancestral role in axis elongation.
Benton MA, Pechmann M, Frey N, Stappert D, Conrads KH, Chen Y, Stamataki E, Pavlopoulos A, Roth S
Current Biology : CB. 2016 May 18;26(12):1609-15. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.055

One of the key morphogenetic processes used during development is the controlled intercalation of cells between their neighbors. This process has been co-opted into a range of developmental events, and it also underlies an event that occurs in each major group of bilaterians: elongation of the embryo along the anterior-posterior axis [1]. In Drosophila, a novel component of this process was recently discovered by Paré et al., who showed that three Toll genes function together to drive cell intercalation during germband extension [2]. This finding raises the question of whether this role of Toll genes is an evolutionary novelty of flies or a general mechanism of embryonic morphogenesis. Here we show that the Toll gene function in axis elongation is, in fact, widely conserved among arthropods. First, we functionally demonstrate that two Toll genes are required for cell intercalation in the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We then show that these genes belong to a previously undescribed Toll subfamily and that members of this subfamily exhibit striped expression (as seen in Tribolium and previously reported in Drosophila [3-5]) in embryos of six other arthropod species spanning the entire phylum. Last, we show that two of these Toll genes are required for normal morphogenesis during anterior-posterior embryo elongation in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum, a member of the most basally branching arthropod lineage. From our findings, we hypothesize that Toll genes had a morphogenetic function in embryo elongation in the last common ancestor of all arthropods, which existed over 550 million years ago.

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07/14/14 | Transgenesis in non-model organisms: the case of Parhyale.
Kontarakis Z, Pavlopoulos A
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1196:145-81. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-1242-1_10

One of the most striking manifestations of Hox gene activity is the morphological and functional diversity of arthropod body plans, segments, and associated appendages. Among arthropod models, the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis satisfies a number of appealing biological and technical requirements to study the Hox control of tissue and organ morphogenesis. Parhyale embryos undergo direct development from fertilized eggs into miniature adults within 10 days and are amenable to all sorts of embryological and functional genetic manipulations. Furthermore, each embryo develops a series of specialized appendages along the anterior-posterior body axis, offering exceptional material to probe the genetic basis of appendage patterning, growth, and differentiation. Here, we describe the methodologies and techniques required for transgenesis-based gain-of-function studies of Hox genes in Parhyale embryos. First, we introduce a protocol for efficient microinjection of early-stage Parhyale embryos. Second, we describe the application of fast and reliable assays to test the activity of the Minos DNA transposon in embryos. Third, we present the use of Minos-based transgenesis vectors to generate stable and transient transgenic Parhyale. Finally, we describe the development and application of a conditional heat-inducible misexpression system to study the role of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax in Parhyale appendage specialization. Beyond providing a useful resource for Parhyalists, this chapter also aims to provide a road map for researchers working on other emerging model organisms. Acknowledging the time and effort that need to be invested in developing transgenic approaches in new species, it is all worth it considering the wide scope of experimentation that opens up once transgenesis is established.

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02/14/14 | Tribolium embryo morphogenesis: may the force be with you.
Benton MA, Pavlopoulos A
Bioarchitecture. 2014 Jan-Feb;4(1):16-21. doi: 10.4161/bioa.27815

Development of multicellular organisms depends on patterning and growth mechanisms encoded in the genome, but also on the physical properties and mechanical interactions of the constituent cells that interpret these genetic cues. This fundamental biological problem requires integrated studies at multiple levels of biological organization: from genes, to cell behaviors, to tissue morphogenesis. We have recently combined functional genetics with live imaging approaches in embryos of the insect Tribolium castaneum, in order to understand their remarkable transformation from a uniform single-layered blastoderm into a condensed multi-layered embryo covered by extensive extra-embryonic tissues. We first developed a quick and reliable methodology to fluorescently label various cell components in entire Tribolium embryos. Live imaging of labeled embryos at single cell resolution provided detailed descriptions of cell behaviors and tissue movements during normal embryogenesis. We then compared cell and tissue dynamics between wild-type and genetically perturbed embryos that exhibited altered relative proportions of constituent tissues. This systematic comparison led to a qualitative model of the molecular, cellular and tissue interactions that orchestrate the observed epithelial rearrangements. We expect this work to establish the Tribolium embryo as a powerful and attractive model system for biologists and biophysicists interested in the molecular, cellular and mechanical control of tissue morphogenesis.

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08/01/13 | Cell and tissue dynamics during Tribolium embryogenesis revealed by versatile fluorescence labeling approaches.
Benton MA, Akam M, Pavlopoulos A
Development. 2013 Aug;140(15):3210-20. doi: 10.1242/dev.096271

Studies on new arthropod models such as the beetle Tribolium castaneum are shifting our knowledge of embryonic patterning and morphogenesis beyond the Drosophila paradigm. In contrast to Drosophila, Tribolium embryos exhibit the short-germ type of development and become enveloped by extensive extra-embryonic membranes, the amnion and serosa. The genetic basis of these processes has been the focus of active research. Here, we complement genetic approaches with live fluorescence imaging of Tribolium embryos to make the link between gene function and morphogenetic cell behaviors during blastoderm formation and differentiation, germband condensation and elongation, and extra-embryonic development. We first show that transient labeling methods result in strong, homogeneous and persistent expression of fluorescent markers in Tribolium embryos, labeling the chromatin, membrane, cytoskeleton or combinations thereof. We then use co-injection of fluorescent markers with dsRNA for live imaging of embryos with disrupted caudal gene function caused by RNA interference. Using these approaches, we describe and compare cell and tissue dynamics in Tribolium embryos with wild-type and altered fate maps. We find that Tribolium germband condensation is effected by cell contraction and intercalation, with the latter being dependent on the anterior-posterior patterning system. We propose that germband condensation drives initiation of amnion folding, whereas expansion of the amniotic fold and closure of the amniotic cavity are likely driven by contraction of an actomyosin cable at the boundary between the amnion and serosa. Our methodology provides a comprehensive framework for testing quantitative models of patterning, growth and morphogenetic mechanisms in Tribolium and other arthropod species.

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06/01/11 | A versatile strategy for gene trapping and trap conversion in emerging model organisms.
Kontarakis Z, Pavlopoulos A, Kiupakis A, Konstantinides N, Douris V, Averof M
Development . 2011 Jun;138(12):2625-30. doi: 10.1242/dev.066324

Genetic model organisms such as Drosophila, C. elegans and the mouse provide formidable tools for studying mechanisms of development, physiology and behaviour. Established models alone, however, allow us to survey only a tiny fraction of the morphological and functional diversity present in the animal kingdom. Here, we present iTRAC, a versatile gene-trapping approach that combines the implementation of unbiased genetic screens with the generation of sophisticated genetic tools both in established and emerging model organisms. The approach utilises an exon-trapping transposon vector that carries an integrase docking site, allowing the targeted integration of new constructs into trapped loci. We provide proof of principle for iTRAC in the emerging model crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis: we generate traps that allow specific developmental and physiological processes to be visualised in unparalleled detail, we show that trapped genes can be easily cloned from an unsequenced genome, and we demonstrate targeting of new constructs into a trapped locus. Using this approach, gene traps can serve as platforms for generating diverse reporters, drivers for tissue-specific expression, gene knockdown and other genetic tools not yet imagined.

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02/15/11 | Hox gene Ultrabithorax regulates distinct sets of target genes at successive stages of Drosophila haltere morphogenesis.
Pavlopoulos A, Akam M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2011 Feb 15;108:2855-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1015077108

Hox genes encode highly conserved transcription factors that regionalize the animal body axis by controlling complex developmental processes. Although they are known to operate in multiple cell types and at different stages, we are still missing the batteries of genes targeted by any one Hox gene over the course of a single developmental process to achieve a particular cell and organ morphology. The transformation of wings into halteres by the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) in Drosophila melanogaster presents an excellent model system to study the Hox control of transcriptional networks during successive stages of appendage morphogenesis and cell differentiation. We have used an inducible misexpression system to switch on Ubx in the wing epithelium at successive stages during metamorphosis–in the larva, prepupa, and pupa. We have then used extensive microarray expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR to identify the primary transcriptional responses to Ubx. We find that Ubx targets range from regulatory genes like transcription factors and signaling components to terminal differentiation genes affecting a broad repertoire of cell behaviors and metabolic reactions. Ubx up- and down-regulates hundreds of downstream genes at each stage, mostly in a subtle manner. Strikingly, our analysis reveals that Ubx target genes are largely distinct at different stages of appendage morphogenesis, suggesting extensive interactions between Hox genes and hormone-controlled regulatory networks to orchestrate complex genetic programs during metamorphosis.

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08/18/09 | Knockdown of parhyale ultrabithorax recapitulates evolutionary changes in crustacean appendage morphology.
Liubicich DM, Serano JM, Pavlopoulos A, Kontarakis Z, Protas ME, Kwan E, Chatterjee S, Tran KD, Averof M, Patel NH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2009 Aug 18;106:13892-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903105106

Crustaceans possess remarkably diverse appendages, both between segments of a single individual as well as between species. Previous studies in a wide range of crustaceans have demonstrated a correlation between the anterior expression boundary of the homeotic (Hox) gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and the location and number of specialized thoracic feeding appendages, called maxillipeds. Given that Hox genes regulate regional identity in organisms as diverse as mice and flies, these observations in crustaceans led to the hypothesis that Ubx expression regulates the number of maxillipeds and that evolutionary changes in Ubx expression have generated various aspects of crustacean appendage diversity. Specifically, evolutionary changes in the expression boundary of Ubx have resulted in crustacean species with either 0, 1, 2, or 3 pairs of thoracic maxillipeds. Here we test this hypothesis by altering the expression of Ubx in Parhyale hawaiensis, a crustacean that normally possesses a single pair of maxillipeds. By reducing Ubx expression, we can generate Parhyale with additional maxillipeds in a pattern reminiscent of that seen in other crustacean species, and these morphological alterations are maintained as the animals molt and mature. These results provide critical evidence supporting the proposition that changes in Ubx expression have played a role in generating crustacean appendage diversity and lend general insights into the mechanisms of morphological evolution.

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