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1765 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 1765 results
05/06/20 | Whole-brain profiling of cells and circuits in mammals by tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy.
Ueda HR, Dodt H, Osten P, Economo MN, Chandrashekar J, Keller PJ
Neuron. 2020 May 06;106(3):369-387. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.03.004

Tissue clearing and light-sheet microscopy have a 100-year-plus history, yet these fields have been combined only recently to facilitate novel experiments and measurements in neuroscience. Since tissue-clearing methods were first combined with modernized light-sheet microscopy a decade ago, the performance of both technologies has rapidly improved, broadening their applications. Here, we review the state of the art of tissue-clearing methods and light-sheet microscopy and discuss applications of these techniques in profiling cells and circuits in mice. We examine outstanding challenges and future opportunities for expanding these techniques to achieve brain-wide profiling of cells and circuits in primates and humans. Such integration will help provide a systems-level understanding of the physiology and pathology of our central nervous system.

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06/22/20 | Two-parameter mobility assessments discriminate diverse regulatory factor behaviors in chromatin.
Lerner J, Gomez-Garcia PA, McCarthy RL, Liu Z, Lakadamyali M, Zaret KS
Molecular Cell. 2020 Jun 22:. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2020.05.036

Enzymatic probes of chromatin structure reveal accessible versus inaccessible chromatin states, while super-resolution microscopy reveals a continuum of chromatin compaction states. Characterizing histone H2B movements by single-molecule tracking (SMT), we resolved chromatin domains ranging from low to high mobility and displaying different subnuclear localizations patterns. Heterochromatin constituents correlated with the lowest mobility chromatin, whereas transcription factors varied widely with regard to their respective mobility with low- or high-mobility chromatin. Pioneer transcription factors, which bind nucleosomes, can access the low-mobility chromatin domains, whereas weak or non-nucleosome binding factors are excluded from the domains and enriched in higher mobility domains. Nonspecific DNA and nucleosome binding accounted for most of the low mobility of strong nucleosome interactor FOXA1. Our analysis shows how the parameters of the mobility of chromatin-bound factors, but not their diffusion behaviors or SMT-residence times within chromatin, distinguish functional characteristics of different chromatin-interacting proteins.

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06/17/20 | Mechanisms of procollagen and HSP47 sorting during ER-to-Golgi trafficking
Omari S, Makareeva E, Gorrell L, Jarnik M, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Leikin S
Matrix Biology. 2020 Jun 17:. doi: 10.1016/j.matbio.2020.06.002

Efficient quality control and export of procollagen from the cell is crucial for extracellular matrix homeostasis, yet it is still incompletely understood. One of the debated questions is the role of a collagen-specific ER chaperone HSP47 in these processes. Most ER chaperones preferentially bind to unfolded polypeptide chains, enabling selective export of natively folded proteins from the ER after chaperone release. In contrast, HSP47 preferentially binds to the natively folded procollagen and is believed to be released only in the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi. HSP47 colocalization with procollagen in punctate structures observed by immunofluorescence imaging of fixed cells has thus been interpreted as evidence for HSP47 export from the ER together with procollagen in transport vesicles destined for ERGIC or Golgi. To understand the mechanism of this co-trafficking and its physiological significance, we imaged the dynamics of fluorescently tagged type I procollagen and HSP47 punctate structures in live MC3T3 murine osteoblasts with up to 120 nm spatial and 500 ms time resolution. Contrary to the prevailing model, we discovered that most bona fide carriers delivering procollagen from ER exit sites (ERESs) to Golgi contained no HSP47, unless the RDEL signal for ER retention in HSP47 was deleted or mutated. These transport intermediates exhibited characteristic rapid, directional motion along microtubules, while puncta with colocalized HSP47 and procollagen similar to the ones described before had only limited, stochastic motion. Live cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the latter puncta (including the ones induced by ARF1 inhibition) were dilated regions of ER lumen, ERESs, or autophagic structures surrounded by lysosomal membranes. Procollagen was colocalized with HSP47 and ERGIC53 at ERESs. It was colocalized with ERGIC53 but not HSP47 in Golgi-bound transport intermediates. Our results suggest that procollagen and HSP47 sorting occurs at ERES before procollagen is exported from the ER in Golgi-bound transport intermediates, providing new insights into mechanisms of procollagen trafficking.

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06/11/20 | Employing NaChBac for cryo-EM analysis of toxin action on voltage-gated Na+ channels in nanodisc
Gao S, Valinsky WC, On NC, Houlihan PR, Qu Q, Liu L, Pan X, Clapham DE, Yan N
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A.. 2020 Jun 11:201922903. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1922903117

NaChBac, the first bacterial voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channel to be characterized, has been the prokaryotic prototype for studying the structure–function relationship of Nav channels. Discovered nearly two decades ago, the structure of NaChBac has not been determined. Here we present the single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) analysis of NaChBac in both detergent micelles and nanodiscs. Under both conditions, the conformation of NaChBac is nearly identical to that of the potentially inactivated NavAb. Determining the structure of NaChBac in nanodiscs enabled us to examine gating modifier toxins (GMTs) of Nav channels in lipid bilayers. To study GMTs in mammalian Nav channels, we generated a chimera in which the extracellular fragment of the S3 and S4 segments in the second voltage-sensing domain from Nav1.7 replaced the corresponding sequence in NaChBac. Cryo-EM structures of the nanodisc-embedded chimera alone and in complex with HuwenToxin IV (HWTX-IV) were determined to 3.5 and 3.2 Å resolutions, respectively. Compared to the structure of HWTX-IV–bound human Nav1.7, which was obtained at an overall resolution of 3.2 Å, the local resolution of the toxin has been improved from ∼6 to ∼4 Å. This resolution enabled visualization of toxin docking. NaChBac can thus serve as a convenient surrogate for structural studies of the interactions between GMTs and Nav channels in a membrane environment.

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06/04/20 | First occurrence of the pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the Comoros Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean)
Hassani I, Behrman E, Prigent S, Gidaszewski N, Ravaomanarivo LR, Suwalski A, Debat V, David J, Yassin A
African Entomology. 2020 Jun 04;28(1):78. doi: 10.4001/003.028.0078

Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is an Asian pest of grapes and other soft fruits that has invaded North America and Europe during the last decade. Here we report its recent occurrence on two islands of the Comoros archipelago in the Mozambique Channel, namely Mayotte and Ngazidja (Grande Comore), in April 2017 and November 2018, respectively. We also document its absence from other African islands in the Mozambique Channel and the Western Indian Ocean including Mayotte until 2013. Drosophila ashburneriTsacas, 1984 is the only member of the suzukii species subgroup known from the Comoros, but it is morphologically distinct and likely distantly related to DsuzukiiDrosophila suzukii has likely been recently introduced to the Comoros archipelago, perhaps from La Réunion island where it first appeared in November 2013. On all of these tropical islands, Dsuzukii was found in high-altitude habitats in agreement with its adaptation to cold environments. These results suggest the high susceptibility of highlands in eastern and southern Africa to be infested by this pest in the near future.

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06/02/20 | Chloroplast Sec14-like 1 (CPSFL1) is essential for normal chloroplast development and affects carotenoid accumulation in Chlamydomonas.
García-Cerdán JG, Schmid EM, Takeuchi T, McRae I, McDonald KL, Yordduangjun N, Hassan AM, Grob P, Xu CS, Hess HF, Fletcher DA, Nogales E, Niyogi KK
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U S A. 2020 Jun 2;117(22):1-12. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1916948117

Plastid isoprenoid-derived carotenoids serve essential roles in chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Although nearly all enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of carotenoids in plants have been identified, the complement of auxiliary proteins that regulate synthesis, transport, sequestration, and degradation of these molecules and their isoprenoid precursors have not been fully described. To identify such proteins that are necessary for the optimal functioning of oxygenic photosynthesis, we screened a large collection of nonphotosynthetic (acetate-requiring) DNA insertional mutants of and isolated The mutant is extremely light-sensitive and susceptible to photoinhibition and photobleaching. The gene encodes a CRAL-TRIO hydrophobic ligand-binding (Sec14) domain protein. Proteins containing this domain are limited to eukaryotes, but some may have been retargeted to function in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. The mutant showed decreased accumulation of plastidial isoprenoid-derived pigments, especially carotenoids, and whole-cell focused ion-beam scanning-electron microscopy revealed a deficiency of carotenoid-rich chloroplast structures (e.g., eyespot and plastoglobules). The low carotenoid content resulted from impaired biosynthesis at a step prior to phytoene, the committed precursor to carotenoids. The CPSFL1 protein bound phytoene and β-carotene when expressed in and phosphatidic acid in vitro. We suggest that CPSFL1 is involved in the regulation of phytoene synthesis and carotenoid transport and thereby modulates carotenoid accumulation in the chloroplast.

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05/28/20 | Enhanced Golic+: Highly effective CRISPR gene targeting and transgene HACKing in .
Chen H, Yao X, Ren Q, Chang C, Liu L, Miyares RL, Lee T
Development. 2020 May 28:. doi: 10.1242/dev.181974

Gene targeting is an incredibly valuable technique. Sometimes however, it can also be extremely challenging for various intrinsic reasons (e.g. low target accessibility or nature/extent of gene modification). To bypass these barriers, we designed a transgene-based system in Drosophila that increases the number of independent gene targeting events while at the same time enriching for correctly targeted progeny. Unfortunately, with particularly challenging gene targeting experiments, our original design yielded numerous false positives. Here we deliver a much-improved technique named Enhanced Golic+ (E-Golic+). E-Golic+ incorporates genetic modifications to tighten lethality-based selection while simultaneously boosting efficiency. With E-Golic+, we easily achieve previously unattainable gene targeting. Additionally, we built an E-Golic+ based, high-efficiency genetic pipeline for transgene swapping. We demonstrate its utility by transforming GAL4 enhancer-trap lines into tissue-specific Cas9-expressing lines. Given the superior efficiency, specificity and scalability, E-Golic+ promises to expedite development of additional sophisticated genetic/genomic tools in .

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05/26/20 | Live-cell imaging in the era of too many microscopes.
Lemon WC, McDole K
Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2020 May 26;66:34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2020.04.008

At the time of this writing, searching Google Scholar for 'light-sheet microscopy' returns almost 8500 results; over three-quarters of which were published in the last 5 years alone. Searching for other advanced imaging methods in the last 5 years yields similar results: 'super-resolution microscopy' (>16 000), 'single-molecule imaging' (almost 10 000), SPIM (Single Plane Illumination Microscopy, 5000), and 'lattice light-sheet' (1300). The explosion of new imaging methods has also produced a dizzying menagerie of acronyms, with over 100 different species of 'light-sheet' alone, from SPIM to UM (Ultra microscopy) to SiMView (Simultaneous MultiView) to iSPIM (inclined SPIM, not to be confused with iSPIM, inverted SPIM). How then is the average biologist, without an advanced degree in physics, optics, or computer science supposed to make heads or tails of which method is best suited for their needs? Let us also not forget the plight of the optical physicist, who at best might need help with obtaining healthy samples and keeping them that way, or at worst may not realize the impact their newest technique could have for biologists. This review will not attempt to solve all these problems, but instead highlight some of the most recent, successful mergers between biology and advanced imaging technologies, as well as hopefully provide some guidance for anyone interested in journeying into the world of live-cell imaging.

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05/25/20 | jYCaMP: an optimized calcium indicator for two-photon imaging at fiber laser wavelengths.
Mohr MA, Bushey D, Aggarwal A, Marvin JS, Kim JJ, Marquez EJ, Liang Y, Patel R, Macklin JJ, Lee C, Tsang A, Tsegaye G, Ahrens AM, Chen JL, Kim DS, Wong AM, Looger LL, Schreiter ER, Podgorski K
Nature Methods. 2020 May 25:. doi: 10.1038/s41592-020-0835-7

Femtosecond lasers at fixed wavelengths above 1,000 nm are powerful, stable and inexpensive, making them promising sources for two-photon microscopy. Biosensors optimized for these wavelengths are needed for both next-generation microscopes and affordable turn-key systems. Here we report jYCaMP1, a yellow variant of the calcium indicator jGCaMP7 that outperforms its parent in mice and flies at excitation wavelengths above 1,000 nm and enables improved two-color calcium imaging with red fluorescent protein-based indicators.

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05/25/20 | Membrane potential dynamics underlying context-dependent sensory responses in the hippocampus.
Zhao X, Wang Y, Spruston N, Magee JC
Nature Neuroscience. 2020 May 25:. doi: 10.1038/s41593-020-0646-2

As animals navigate, they must identify features within context. In the mammalian brain, the hippocampus has the ability to separately encode different environmental contexts, even when they share some prominent features. To do so, neurons respond to sensory features in a context-dependent manner; however, it is not known how this encoding emerges. To examine this, we performed electrical recordings in the hippocampus as mice navigated in two distinct virtual environments. In CA1, both synaptic input to single neurons and population activity strongly tracked visual cues in one environment, whereas responses were almost completely absent when the same cue was presented in a second environment. A very similar, highly context-dependent pattern of cue-driven spiking was also observed in CA3. These results indicate that CA1 inherits a complex spatial code from upstream regions, including CA3, that have already computed a context-dependent representation of environmental features.

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