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1030 Janelia Publications

Showing 1-10 of 1030 results
12/18/16 | Canonical genetic signatures of the adult human brain.
Hawrylycz M, Miller JA, Menon V, Feng D, Dolbeare T, Guillozet-Bongaarts AL, Jegga AG, Aronow BJ, Lee C, Bernard A, Glasser MF, Dierker DL, Menche J, Szafer A, Collman F, Grange P, Berman KA, Mihalas S, Yao Z, Stewart L, Barabási A, Schulkin J, Phillips J, Ng L, Dang C, Haynor DR, Jones A, Van Essen DC, Koch C, Lein E
Nature neuroscience. 2015 Dec;18(12):1832-44. doi: 10.1038/nn.4171

The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing mesoscale genetic organization. The genes with the highest differential stability are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related annotations, disease associations, drug targets and literature citations. Using genes with high differential stability, we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely patterned genes displayed marked shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry.

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09/26/16 | Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.
Bomphrey RJ, Nakata T, Henningsson P, Lin H
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 2016 Sep 26;371(1704):. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0389

This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

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09/14/16 | Effect of magnetic nanoparticle shape on flux amplification in inductive coil magnetic resonance detection.
Barbic M, El Bidweihy H
Journal of Applied Physics. 2016 Sep 14:104506-1-7. doi: 10.1063/1.4962451

We model and analyze the effect of particle shape on the signal amplification in inductive coil magnetic resonance detection using the reversible transverse magnetic susceptibility of oriented magnetic nanostructures. Utilizing the single magnetic domain Stoner-Wohlfarth model of uniform magnetization rotation, we reveal that different ellipsoidal particle shapes can have a pronounced effect on the magnetic flux enhancement in detection configurations typical of magnetic resonance settings. We compare and contrast the prolate ellipsoids, oblate ellipsoids, and exchange-biased spheres and show that the oblate ellipsoids and exchange-biased spheres have a significantly higher flux amplification effect than the prolate ellipsoids considered previously. In addition, oblate ellipsoids have a much broader polarizing magnetic fieldrange over which their transverse flux amplification is significant. We show the dependence of transverse flux amplification on magnetic resonance bias field and discuss the resulting signal-to-noise ratio of inductive magnetic resonance detection due to the magnetic nanoparticle-filled core of the magnetic resonance detection coil.

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09/23/16 | Imaging far and wide.
Chhetri RK, Keller PJ
eLife. 2016 Sep 23;5:e21072. doi: 10.7554/eLife.18659

A custom-built objective lens called the Mesolens allows relatively large biological specimens to be imaged with cellular resolution.

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09/19/16 | Ab initio structure determination from prion nanocrystals at atomic resolution by MicroED.
Sawaya MR, Rodriguez J, Cascio D, Collazo MJ, Shi D, Reyes FE, Hattne J, Gonen T, Eisenberg DS
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016 Sep 19:. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606287113

Electrons, because of their strong interaction with matter, produce high-resolution diffraction patterns from tiny 3D crystals only a few hundred nanometers thick in a frozen-hydrated state. This discovery offers the prospect of facile structure determination of complex biological macromolecules, which cannot be coaxed to form crystals large enough for conventional crystallography or cannot easily be produced in sufficient quantities. Two potential obstacles stand in the way. The first is a phenomenon known as dynamical scattering, in which multiple scattering events scramble the recorded electron diffraction intensities so that they are no longer informative of the crystallized molecule. The second obstacle is the lack of a proven means of de novo phase determination, as is required if the molecule crystallized is insufficiently similar to one that has been previously determined. We show with four structures of the amyloid core of the Sup35 prion protein that, if the diffraction resolution is high enough, sufficiently accurate phases can be obtained by direct methods with the cryo-EM method microelectron diffraction (MicroED), just as in X-ray diffraction. The success of these four experiments dispels the concern that dynamical scattering is an obstacle to ab initio phasing by MicroED and suggests that structures of novel macromolecules can also be determined by direct methods.

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09/08/16 | Behavioural integration of auditory and antennal stimulation during phonotaxis in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus (DeGeer).
Haberkern H, Hedwig B
The Journal of Experimental Biology. 2016 Sep 8:. doi: 10.1242/jeb.141606

Animals need to flexibly respond to stimuli from their environment without compromising behavioural consistency. For example, female crickets orienting toward a conspecific male's calling song in search of a mating partner need to stay responsive to other signals that provide information about obstacles and predators. Here, we investigate how spontaneously walking crickets and crickets engaging in acoustically guided goal-directed navigation, i.e. phonotaxis, respond to mechanosensory stimuli detected by their long antennae. We monitored walking behaviour of female crickets on a trackball during lateral antennal stimulation, which was achieved by moving a wire mesh transiently into reach of one antenna. During antennal stimulation alone, females reduced their walking speed, oriented toward the object and actively explored it with antennal movements. Additionally, some crickets initially turned away from the approaching object. Females responded in a similar way when the antennal stimulus was presented during ongoing phonotaxis: forward velocity was reduced and phonotactic steering was suppressed while the females turned toward and explored the object. Further, rapid steering bouts to individual chirps, typical for female phonotaxis, no longer occurred.Our data reveals that in this experimental situation antennal stimulation overrides phonotaxis for extended time periods. Phonotaxis in natural environments, which require the integration of multiple sensory cues, may therefore be more variable than phonotaxis measured under ideal laboratory conditions. Combining this new behavioural paradigm with neurophysiological methods will show where the sensory-motor integration of antennal and acoustic stimulation occurs and how this is achieved on a mechanistic level.

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09/08/16 | Cell class-lineage analysis reveals sexually dimorphic lineage compositions in the Drosophila brain.
Ren Q, Awasaki T, Huang Y, Liu Z, Lee T
Current Biology : CB. 2016 Sep 08:. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.086

The morphology and physiology of neurons are directed by developmental decisions made within their lines of descent from single stem cells. Distinct stem cells may produce neurons having shared properties that define their cell class, such as the type of secreted neurotransmitter. The relationship between cell class and lineage is complex. Here we developed the transgenic cell class-lineage intersection (CLIn) system to assign cells of a particular class to specific lineages within the Drosophila brain. CLIn also enables birth-order analysis and genetic manipulation of particular cell classes arising from particular lineages. We demonstrated the power of CLIn in the context of the eight central brain type II lineages, which produce highly diverse progeny through intermediate neural progenitors. We mapped 18 dopaminergic neurons from three distinct clusters to six type II lineages that show lineage-characteristic neurite trajectories. In addition, morphologically distinct dopaminergic neurons are produced within a given lineage, and they arise in an invariant sequence. We also identified type II lineages that produce doublesex- and fruitless-expressing neurons and examined whether female-specific apoptosis in these lineages accounts for the lower number of these neurons in the female brain. Blocking apoptosis in these lineages resulted in more cells in both sexes with males still carrying more cells than females. This argues that sex-specific stem cell fate together with differential progeny apoptosis contribute to the final sexual dimorphism.

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08/26/16 | Improving data quality in neuronal population recordings.
Harris KD, Quiroga RQuian, Freeman J, Smith SL
Nature Neuroscience. 2016 Aug 26;19(9):1165-74. doi: 10.1038/nn.4365

Understanding how the brain operates requires understanding how large sets of neurons function together. Modern recording technology makes it possible to simultaneously record the activity of hundreds of neurons, and technological developments will soon allow recording of thousands or tens of thousands. As with all experimental techniques, these methods are subject to confounds that complicate the interpretation of such recordings, and could lead to erroneous scientific conclusions. Here we discuss methods for assessing and improving the quality of data from these techniques and outline likely future directions in this field.

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08/26/16 | Technologies for imaging neural activity in large volumes.
Ji N, Freeman J, Smith SL
Nature Neuroscience. 2016 Aug 26;19(9):1154-64. doi: 10.1038/nn.4358

Neural circuitry has evolved to form distributed networks that act dynamically across large volumes. Conventional microscopy collects data from individual planes and cannot sample circuitry across large volumes at the temporal resolution relevant to neural circuit function and behaviors. Here we review emerging technologies for rapid volume imaging of neural circuitry. We focus on two critical challenges: the inertia of optical systems, which limits image speed, and aberrations, which restrict the image volume. Optical sampling time must be long enough to ensure high-fidelity measurements, but optimized sampling strategies and point-spread function engineering can facilitate rapid volume imaging of neural activity within this constraint. We also discuss new computational strategies for processing and analyzing volume imaging data of increasing size and complexity. Together, optical and computational advances are providing a broader view of neural circuit dynamics and helping elucidate how brain regions work in concert to support behavior.

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08/25/16 | Highly photostable, reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent protein with high contrast ratio for live-cell superresolution microscopy.
Zhang X, Zhang M, Li D, He W, Peng J, Betzig E, Xu P
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2016 Aug 25:. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1611038113

Two long-standing problems for superresolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy are high illumination intensity and long acquisition time, which significantly hamper its application for live-cell imaging. Reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) have made it possible to dramatically lower the illumination intensities in saturated depletion-based SR techniques, such as saturated depletion nonlinear structured illumination microscopy (NL-SIM) and reversible saturable optical fluorescence transition microscopy. The characteristics of RSFPs most critical for SR live-cell imaging include, first, the integrated fluorescence signal across each switching cycle, which depends upon the absorption cross-section, effective quantum yield, and characteristic switching time from the fluorescent "on" to "off" state; second, the fluorescence contrast ratio of on/off states; and third, the photostability under excitation and depletion. Up to now, the RSFPs of the Dronpa and rsEGFP (reversibly switchable EGFP) families have been exploited for SR imaging. However, their limited number of switching cycles, relatively low fluorescence signal, and poor contrast ratio under physiological conditions ultimately restrict their utility in time-lapse live-cell imaging and their ability to reach the desired resolution at a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Here, we present a truly monomeric RSFP, Skylan-NS, whose properties are optimized for the recently developed patterned activation NL-SIM, which enables low-intensity (∼100 W/cm(2)) live-cell SR imaging at ∼60-nm resolution at subsecond acquisition times for tens of time points over broad field of view.

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